Books have been taken out of libraries and classrooms that contain explicit material and teach prejudice and evil. Literature with topics such as Gods against Gods and misdeeds were untruthful. Not only does Socrates (Plato's mouthpiece in the dialogue) posit two differing visions of education (the first is the education of the warrior guardians and the second is the philosopher-kings' education), but he also provides a more subtle account of education through the pedagogical method he uses with Glaucon and Adeimantus. This view has actually changed my whole perspective on my religious views and has leaded me to search for a new one. This paper will first examine the dialogue's two explicit accounts of education, addressing both their similarities and differences. Similar to the previous education, education (in music, gymnastics, mathematics, and preparatory dialectics) begins in childhood. By preparing Glaucon with the sun analogy and telling him of the extreme power of the good, Socrates hooks him completely. Although Plato's Republic is best known for its definitive defense of justice, it also includes an equally powerful defense of philosophical education. Children must be told that the gods are not the cause of all things, only those which are good and just (380c). Guardian. After being compelled to expound on the details of the city (including communism and gender equality), Socrates admits that the city should be ruled by philosopher-kings (503b) and, furthermore, that the previous account of the guardians' education was incomplete (504b). We'll have an opportunity to consider his notions about higher education later, but his plan for the elementary education of guardians for the ideal state appears in Book III. The good is beyond perceived reality and is hard to see, but once the good is understood, it is clear that it "is the cause of all that is right and fair in everything," and must be possessed and understood by prudent rulers (517c). In line with this, Socrates' creation and discussion of the city is a playful activity (536b). Likening the guardians to philosophical "noble puppies," philosophically educating the guardians by sheltering them, attacking the use of poetry, and telling the guardians that their education and childhood was a dream (414d) are all so implausible that they strike a cord suggesting that the opposite is true. The warriors must obey the rulers. Since the philosopher-kings are still to be warriors, their education must still be useful for warlike men. Glaucon wants this illusive, erotic knowledge that Socrates dangles before him, but just as his interest is sparked, Socrates tells him it is too complicated, which arouses Glaucon even more (506e). Socrates skillfully explains until Glaucon grasps the concept and is able to make an account of it for himself. The philosopher-kings' education aims beyond the attainment of the four virtues and includes the greatest and most beneficial study: that of "the good" (505a). He follows the path of the divided line, of which the "first [is] knowledge, the second thought, the third trust, and the fourth imagination" (534a). The answer, Plato believed, was to rely upon the value of a good education. Despite slightly relinquishing control, Socrates still subtly guides Glaucon and Adeimantus toward the truth by making the luxurious city and its guardians' education ludicrous. We'll have an opportunity to consider his notions about higher education later, but his plan for the elementary education of guardians for the ideal state appears in Book III. Education Essay website will help you with writing your Education essays, research papers, term papers and dissertations on Education topics. Hades should be praised so that the warriors will not fear death; children should grow up fearing slavery more than death (386c). In this sense, justice means excellence. Simply by aiming for true knowledge, this education is more philosophical and Socratic than the first. The notion that all private interests be abolished within the guardian class would also leave guardians with little drive to excel. He says that good guardians must not be prisoners nor can they be philosophers who selfishly stay outside of the cave. The third part of education would be music. 1 Plato’s scheme of education was for the guardian class other classes like peasant and artisan were not covered. I will discuss the guardians as one section since the Rulers are picked after the primary education of the Guardians is completed. We fall in love with learning and philosophy both in the abstract sense that Socrates tried to instill in his pupils and also, in the more pragmatic sense, we are students of political philosophy by reading the Republic. Remarkably, in the guardian's education, no one, not even a judge, was permitted exposure to the truth at this young an age. In the second account of education, Socrates says that the best education should be more like play than work (536d). The three forms of storytelling are dramatic, tragedy, and comedy. Get an answer for 'Describe the education of the guardians as it is presented in books 2 and 3 of Plato's Republic.' Plato feels that a poet should not be able to tell a story in dramatic form. Behind them, puppet-masters carry figurines which cast shadows on the wall in front of the prisoners. Socrates says, "It must also be given gymnastic in many studies to see whether it will be able to bear the greatest studies, or whether it will turn out to be a coward" (503e). Next, he teaches about thought through his discussion of the philosopher-kings' education and dialectics. Interestingly, although Socrates includes three of the four main virtues (courage, moderation, and justice) among the important lessons of appropriate tales, wisdom is absent. Tales must be strictly censored because young children are malleable and absorb all to which they are exposed. The Education of the Guardians [Republic II and IV] Plato BOOK II In Book II of the Republic, Plato has his mouthpiece, Socrates, imagine how it is that a state comes into being. Once they see the good itself, they must be compelled, each in his turn, to use it as a pattern for ordering city, private men, and themselves for the rest of their lives. Plato's beliefs on education, however, are difficult to discern because of the intricacies of the dialogue. Plato regards education as a means to achieve justice, both individual justice and social justice. By asserting that the highest virtues are acquired through education and are a matter of refined taste, Socrates combats Glaucon's love for base pleasures. He lets them be founders, thereby allowing them a vested interest in the discussion. Outside these ages, intercourse is to … Interestingly, these bad messages are the same as Glaucon's and Adeimantus' arguments against the usefulness of justice. He says, "Next, then, make an image of our nature in its education and want of education" (514a). It is now clear that Socrates himself is down in the cave, somewhat against his will,2 attempting to help the interlocutors turn from the dark of ignorance to the light of knowledge and realize what is. If we were too spirited, we would become overly aggressive. But above all, they must love hard work. Gods must never be shown as unjust for fear that children will think it acceptable and honorable to do injustice. Lastly in his discussion of educative music, Socrates addresses the appropriate melody of tales with Glaucon. By subtly directing the discussion through questions, Socrates allows the ignorant prisoners to unchain themselves and realize the truth. Plato divides his just society into three classes: the producers, the auxiliaries, and the guardians. The play which he advocates, however, is not without responsibility. (Remember, he operated his own school at Athens!) Unlike the philosopher-kings appearing later in the book, these philosophically natured guardians approve only of that with which they are already familiar and they attack whatever is new. ... had been running their “inclusive music education programme” Roadworks, using genres such as drill to engage young people in … Finally, Glaucon seems to be able to distinguish between what is true and false for himself. Education in music and gymnastics will be compulsory for youths, and their progress and adaptability will be watched and tested throughout their development. He does not try to tell Glaucon and Adeimantus what to think, as though he were putting "sight into blind eyes," but instead helps them turn around and focus on what is important and true. The answer, Plato believed, was to rely upon the value of a good education. The second part of education would be dramatic recitation. (40) In Plato's ideal society, mothers are to be between 20 and 40, fathers between 25 and 55. In light of both accounts of education and the dramatic progression of the dialogue, it becomes apparent that the whole Republic is an example of Socratic pedagogy. Like the divided line, the dialogue has different meanings and purposes on different levels, making it dangerous to believe everything Socrates says. Gymnastics is mainly responsible for preventing illness and the need for medicine in the city. The modes that express sorrow, drunkenness, effeminacy, and inactivity would have to be discarded. Socrates was serious when he said that poetry has the power to touch the soul, which is why he ends his argument with Socratic poetry--the myth of Er. Suitable tales must glorify and encourage moderation; they must display obedience to superiors and temperance in drinking, eating, sex (389e), and love of money and possessions (390e). Although Socrates found it necessary to drag Glaucon out of the cave and into the light using images, Socrates still prefers that his students do not simply accept the truth, but come to it on their own. After teaching imagination, Socrates moves onto trust by introducing an education that requires rulers to blindly trust the educative tales they are told. After convincing Glaucon that escaping the cave and becoming a philosopher is advantageous, Socrates returns to more practical political matters. Finally, Socrates arrives at knowledge of what is. Reasoning through questioning/answering and exchanging arguments teaches how to give accounts of one's self and what one knows, which helps identify the good in oneself and the good in the world. Socrates shows him that with the proper education, a life of noble virtue, including "moderation, courage, liberality, and magnificence" (402c) but excluding sex and excessive pleasure, will be fulfilling. Socrates says, "Now, the true city is in my opinion the one we just described-a healthy city, as it were. After addressing the appropriate content of tales, Socrates discusses whether simple or imitative narrative should be used by poets and guardians. This will insure that theGuardians will be brave. Shouldn’t the The most explicit account of education arises after Glaucon questions the moderate and plain lifestyle required in Socrates' just city "of speech" (369a). This means that the Guardian can distinguish the good from the ugly. The first part of their education would be on literature. When Socrates introduces the cave analogy, one cannot help recognizing the similarities between it and his own actions in the dialogue. First, turns Glaucon onto the good by introducing it in a mysterious, attractive way. Additionally, tales cannot include displays of laughter (389a). Perhaps educated philosophers must even use their education to replace the shadows in the cave with noble tales, such as the myth of Er, which will lead the ruled toward truth while still in the confines of the cave/city. .” Instead, children must look solely to human guardians and the law for guidance. The grown up people of guardian class will receive the education of science and philosophy. Furthermore, if he did try to return to the cave and help the other prisoners, they would hate him, calling him corrupt and delusional because their reality is still limited to the shadows in the cave (517a). Finally, at the age of fifty, those who have excelled in everything will perceive the good and will alternate philosophizing and ruling the city. Poetry and music is very important for the Guardians. Socrates asserts that if someone were to drag him "away from there by force along the rough, steep, upward way, and didn't let him go before he had dragged him out into the light of the sun" (516a), the prisoner would fight and be resentful, and even then, would not be able to see everything at once. He says that these poets' tales include bad lies, which further unrealistic images of the gods and heroes (377e). Socrates does not advocate a complicated gymnastic regimen; instead, he says that a good soul produces a good body, and that a healthy intellect ensures a healthy body (403d-e). I… As the sun allows our eyes to use their existing capacity to see, the good allows our existing intellect to know. First he will describe the most minimal state imaginable (one where only the most basic needs are met). Because a solely gymnastic education causes savagery and a purely musical education causes softness, the two must be balanced. They must be fierce in order to go to war or ward off invasion. Basically it was developed around ones wisdom. As of now I am still studying other religions. Thus, potential philosopher-kings must receive a new form of education that will identify, test, and refine their philosophical natures. Socrates provides numerous cues that signal that the city and the education are neither ideal, nor meant to be actively instituted. Guardians would also be needed to maintain internal order between the citizens. In the ideal state, matters are overseen by the guardian class – change is to be avoided (perfection having already been obtained), and slaves, and craftsmen and merchants are to know their place. The Guardian must have a healthy body and maintain perfect physical condition. The topic I am going to discuss is the topic of Education. Tales cannot depict fighting among the gods and, further, children must actively be told that citizens have never been angry with one another (378c). More land is needed to hold the burgeoning population and its possessions and a specialized military is needed to carry out conquests and guard the city from its neighbors. Seen as incapable of determining right and wrong for themselves, children were to be guarded from the truth when it was not wholly good. Socrates now acknowledges that the nature necessary in philosopher-kings is rare. Unlike in the first account when Socrates explicitly says that moderation excludes the possibility of lusty pleasure (402e), now Socrates paints the good as though it were as appealing as sex, making Glaucon willing to do anything to obtain the good. Rhythm and harmony touch the soul directly, so if children are surrounded by tales of goodness and never exposed to bad tales, like "noble puppies" they will learn to love what they know (goodness and justice) and hate what they do not know (injustice) (401d-e). The previous account of education, however, is incomplete because gymnastics and music only teach habits by example (521e-522b). If a person is able to imitate different characters then he might be able to take on the characteristics of the character. Socrates' ludicrous examples, different images, and persistent questioning are clearly intended to help guide his pupils upward through the levels of reality to the highest, truest knowledge of what is. Plato believed that literature must contain stories of truth and the divine nature of humans, which is good. Thus, through a rigorous philosophical education, the city unshackles individuals and leads them out of the cave of ignorance and into the light of knowledge so that they are eventually able to go back into the cave and teach others. Furthermore, gods cannot be said to punish (unless it is for the punished person's benefit), change shape/form, or lie. Although Plato's Republic is best known for its definitive defense of justice, it also includes an equally powerful defense of philosophical education. It was influential in the Roman Empire and was revived in European political thought in the age of absolutist monarchs. With regards to censorship, I always felt that any form of censorship was wrong. In Plato’s theory of the guardian class the state may end up serving the guardians and education may become the primary goal, instead of the well being of the population. There are certain aspects such as censorship and a changing God that I felt a certain way about before I read this book, but now feel differently. The Guardians are picked even before they can acquire language so that they can easily be molded into the perfect warriors. Medicine, Socrates says, is only welcome as a means for curing easily-fixed illnesses and should never be used to keep those unable to work alive (406). Rather, only music that would inspire the brave and music that would inspire wisdom and peaceful action on the part of the Guardians. Those who resolutely hold onto the convictions instilled in them by education will be chosen as guardians and those who rebel against the city's ideology will be rejected (413d-414a). Like stories, music according to Plato’s conception of paideia plays a major role in the education of the guardians in virtue; music education must therefore be carefully circumscribed as well so that the words, harmony, and rhythm of a song produce a graceful soul (398c-400e). But unlike the compulsory nature of the earlier education, the philosopher-kings' education must be presented first as voluntary play. When they are thirty-five, those well-trained in dialectics will be required to go back into the cave to hold offices, and testing will continue. They are chosen from among the ranks of the auxiliaries, and are also known as philosopher-kings. Plato view of education is for the good of the individual and for the safety of the state. Through his refutation of the opinions of Glaucon, Adeimantus, Cephalus, Polemarchus, and Thrasymachus, Socrates battles the city's conventions. The Republic (Greek: Πολιτεία, translit. Socrates' sharing in the educational experience is an effective pedagogical method that benefits both the student and the teacher. Plato’s view on a God who does not change form is also something I now agree on. He leads them toward the light by means of questions and dialectics until they are able to make an account of their knowledge for themselves (511c-d). Plato’s Guardian Class Guardians are put into place to defend morality and rule society because they know the truth and posses the knowledge and wisdom of true forms. While the dramatic context of the dialogue makes facets of the Republic difficult to grasp, in the case of education, it also provides the key to locating and understanding Socrates' true vision of education. Hesiod was a famous Greek poet. Dialectics are also to be studied. He shows Glaucon what would happen if a prisoner was unchained and allowed to leave the cave and see reality. Since God is perfection, then he would not need to take on other forms. Education would play a major role in deciding who would be in what class.
2020 plato guardian education