The strong, red mangrove wood gives fish a golden look and pungent smoky taste. 2020-12-02T18:09:39-08:00 In Eyengue, it was sold in lots (see Figure 7), which comprise 120 pieces (see Figure 7) and cost 46€. Thus, smoking is highly dependent on mangrove forests (Ajonina, 2008; Ajonina, 2001). The flora consists essentially of tree species with a dominance of Rhizophora racemosa. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. 73 likes. These fish smokers were mainly located in Down Beach, Idenau, Njonji, and Batoke. 2008-09-15T17:30:12-06:00 In Down Beach, red mangrove wood was sold by line (15 pieces of wood—see Figure 6) at a cost of 16€, or by car load (a Dyna truck), which comprises 12 lines and a costs 192€. Smoker or charcoal grill. We also found that fish smoking processes are not random. Figure 4. Through structured and semistructured questionnaires, 243 fish smokers were interviewed in 9 local markets. While sometimes used as bait, mullet make an excellent choice for smoking or frying. describe the socioeconomic lives of those involved in fish smoking; identify the sources of energy, wood species, wood cost, and alternative fuels used; determine the yields of different oven types and the amount of fuel they require. A large percentage (76%) of wood used by fish smokers is red mangrove wood. Suspended iron bandas were the most common, used by 75.3% of our respondents. On average, each supports a family of 3 to 6 people. Lumber, both new and used, is best to avoid when choosing wood to smoke. They are also safer to use, in that they do not generate as much heat and smoke as traditional ovens, and they smoke fish more cleanly (so that the fish are less carcinogenic). Our first field trip was conducted with personnel from the IRAD and the Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Animal Industries’ (MINEPIA) team, who introduced us to the fishing communities and explained the purpose and importance of our work. Fuel wood for fish smoking is the main driver behind the loss of Cameroon's mangrove, with deforestation rates of 8.28% per year (Feka, 2005, Ajonina et al., 2008, Alongi, 2008, Feka and Manzano, 2008, Feka et al., 2009, Feka and Ajonina, 2011). Indeed, there is a significant difference (F = 17.348, df = 243, p = .00012) between wood consumption in the nine communities. Always meant to give the mangrove a go but never got round to it - anyone tried it ? A study by Cameroon Ecology shows that 750 m 3 of mangrove wood is used every year for smoking fish at the local level. The largest scale fish smokers in the study area were Ghanaian, the majority of whom (62%) were located in Idenau. Our study found that all the fish smokers were women from Cameroon, Ghana, Nigeria, and Benin. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Because of population pressure, this artisanal technique of preservation consumes greater quantities of mangrove wood each year and is having a progressively detrimental impact on mangrove forest sustainability. The smoking time is also shorter than with a traditional oven, and working conditions (smoke, heat, and fumes) are better. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License (. Globally, mangrove forests are the most threatened tropical ecosystem and are being degraded and depleted at alarming rates (Polidoro et al., 2010). Promotional Price Vietnam 100% Wood Charcoal from Mangrove for Somalia Smoking Hookah Bars . As most rural areas do not have electricity, local people use smoking as a way to preserve fish. uuid:f2839f3c-b169-4c67-9999-8eb88f192f10 Mangrove Charcoal is very hard and dense; it burns hotter and longer if compared to any other natural charcoal. We asked some respondents to monitor their wood consumption. A mangrove-wood kiln holds seashells that will be baked into valuable lime. Made in South Africa Suppliers/mangrove Wood Smoking Bbq Directory - Offering Wholesale South African Suppliers/mangrove Wood Smoking Bbq from South Africa Suppliers/mangrove Wood Smoking Bbq Manufacturers, Suppliers and Distributors at TradeKey.com This difference is likely due to different wood species being used, as well as to varying costs. Pouokam (2011) found that only 75% of fish smokers have preference for wood. This result is also supported by Ndiaye and Diei-Ouadi (2009) who report a result of 2€ of fuel per 100 kg of fish for a cinderblock oven compared to 5€ for a traditional oven. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. Figure 8. Most fish smokers used only two species: 64.6% did not use a third choice species. (b) Waste from beach. Table 2 shows the different alternative sources of energy used. The wood is considered very eco-friendly, as some Mango plantations harvest the trees for lumber after they have completed their useful fruit-bearing lifespan. Soils are essentially gray or black vases, with silty textures, sandy, or clayey. Alejandro Estrada (, Polidoro, B. Fish smokers acquired firewood in several ways. In addition to the sale of smoked fish, 8.6% of fish smokers also sell fresh fish. Our study focused on fish smoking activities in Ndian and Fako, in the southwest region of Cameroon. It also cools the fire. The Pearson r linear correlation test was performed to determine the degree of correlation between the amount of wood used and the quantity of fish smoked. They use the oldest trees because large logs keep the fire going without refueling. Read my article on soaking wood. Sharing links are not available for this article. They are formed of river alluvium which is relatively rich in organic matter (Tadjoung & Effala, 2008). Timber species such as Ilomba, Paduk, Zingana, and Tali were less commonly used as firewood. In their study of five communities in the same area, Mulo and Ngueguim (2014), found that 83% of fish smokers used traditional ovens and 11% used metal ovens. This use of mangroves is often of great importance. This ratio is more than twice what we found in our study, which is probably due to differences in size and species of the fish (Ngoma, 2005). Wood from mangrove forests is also used for housing material, scaffolding, fishing stakes and more. However, Baryeh et al., cited in Oulaï et al. TSI Evaristus, senior lecturer at the Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences and Dr. NGUEGUIM Jules, Head of station IRAD Limbe-Batoke, for their supervision of this work and their creative thinking and hard work during the establishment phase of the project. Get your smoke from wood – This may seem obvious. MANGROVE CHARCOAL. The majority of fish smokers (68%) preferred traditional ovens to the new cinderblock oven because they have a large capacity and are known to be durable. Quality Charcoal & Smoking Supplies For Sale We stock quality charcoal ranging from Australian Made Mallee Root and Redgum to Imported Mangrove. They sometimes spend up to 400€ per month on wood and are mainly Ghanaian (47%) and Nigerian (30%). This large gap could be explained by the fact that there were not many cinderblock ovens in our study site which prevented us being able to make a thorough estimate of cinderblock oven performance. Fifty-two percent of respondents are large-scale smokers and are mainly located in Eyengue, Idenau, and Down Beach. On the other hand, a traditional oven has a shorter life span. Ghanaians were more represented in Idenau than in all other areas. Among the first choice, 71% used mangrove wood (Rhizophora racemosa) and 20% Azobe (Lophira alata). Wood utilization intensity in study site according to respondents. Some of these plants include mangrove, poisonous walnut, sassafras, oleander, yew, tambootie, and laburnun. Despite their evident ecological value, and the fact that they constitute an important source of income for surrounding coastal communities, there is a lack of mangrove protection measures in many tropical regions (Spaninks & Beukering, 1997). We also stock Honeybrix Premium Briquettes and Premium Binchotan Charcoal We also stock a range of smoking pellets and chip to suit most needs. Besides mangrove forests, this study revealed that 35% of wood comes from continental forests and 3% from home gardens. Remember that tasty smoke comes from wood. What is the main type of wood used as fuel, what does it cost, and where does it come from? However, indigenous fishing communities on the coast harvest mangrove wood for household domestic use, in particular for cooking and smoking fish. Other accelerating factors in mangrove destruction have been the modernization of wood cutting equipment, particularly the introduction of chainsaws, and the greater availability of large pirogues, powered by outboard engines, which enable easier access to the mangroves stands (Din & Blasco, 2003). Photo by Helen Scales. Mangrove Woods, Port Charlotte, Florida. (c) Circular oven. They were Eyengue, Idenau, Esobe, Njonji, Debundsha, Bakingili, Batoke, Down beach, and Tiko. Fish smoking is one of the key activities impacting on the disappearance of characteristic mangrove species. We have classified large-scale fish smokers as those who spend a sum greater than or equal to 150€ per month. T tests were used in order to compare ovens yields and to compare the amount of wood consumed and the quantity of fish smoked. It has shown that wood plays a major role in the energy supply of the rural population. Lumber Scraps. A balance needs to be found between consumption and preservation: This is the challenge for all parties involved in the fight for sustainable mangrove management in Cameroon. On average and for fish smoking session, fish smokers use 50€ for wood. Login failed. NB: It takes 15 pieces like the one in Figure 6 to form a line. This site uses cookies. For my mangrove … The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. The mangroves are currently valued for fuel wood use at 4146 Ghanaian cedis (US$2765) per ha within the Efasou community. Mangrove wood is still the main resource used for fish smoking in areas of Cameroon other than Kribi (Angoni et al., 2015). Your trusted wood smoking friend Gerry is here to help you out with finding the right wood for the job! Lean Library can solve it. I am also grateful to Pr. Thus, approximately 3 kg of wood is necessary to smoke 1.5 kg of fish, this is similar to Ngoma’s (2005) finding in his study on improving fish smoking in Brazzaville. This increase in distance also increases the price of the wood. Oven types in study site. This study took place in nine communities, all located in the Fako department in the south west region of Cameroon. Our overarching aim is to contribute to the sustainable management of mangroves through an assessment of the impact of fish smoking activities on them. The study found that 60.5% of fish smokers had at least 10 years of experience in smoking. Questions were designed to elicit gender, marital status, age, study level, number of family members, nationality, and main professional activity (fishing, fish smoker, or fish seller). In Cameroon, mangrove forests cover approximately 250,000 hectares and are among the most extensive stands in Africa (Angoni et al., 2015). I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article. A project aimed at introducing one type of cinderblock ovens (chokor ovens) in the region failed mainly because of insufficient training and monitoring by project managers. 4 0 obj NB: Because the observation numbers of each variable were not equal, we used the harmonic mean of the group sizes. Our mangrove wood is 100% legally harvested, processed and exported under the most strict international exports standards and we are shipping the best mangrove charcoal for BBQ all over the world. The study site is a coastal area, where there are many elongated banks of dry land. The geographical coordinates of the locality are 4° 20′ to 4° 50′ N latitude and 8° 30′ to 9° 00′ E longitude (Din, 2001). For communities living in remote fishing villages in northwest Madagascar, hot smoking is providing a lifeline, enabling them to better preserve their fish The different uses of mangrove wood were similar in all sites, but the quantities of wood extracted from different sites varied, with sites of high fish landings registering the highest fuel-wood turnover. Ninety-three percent of our respondents purchase the wood they use, which is mainly red mangrove (Rhizophora racemosa). The most used alternative source of fuel was waste collected from the beach (Figure 5(a)). When there was a smoking session, the weight of the fish and of the wood used for smoking was measured and recorded. The least used alternative energy source were coconut shells (Figure 5(c)) and palm kernel waste (Figure 5(d)). Fish and wood species, smoking time, wood purchase, and sales costs were also recorded. Post Reply. Rhizophora is especially popular because its wood is heavy, burns with even heat and gives off little smoke. However, once you learn about the different types of wood for smoking meat, you will find those great few choices that will suit your personal tastes in no time. Figure 2. Nevertheless, the study shows that cinderblock ovens are categorically more economical than traditional ovens. (a) Plantain and cassava peel. Distance to the collection site and the cost of the wood were less important. Size matters. Most respondents said they had been smoking fish since they were young and that they had inherited work spaces, equipment, and necessary skills from their mothers. The restocking frequency varied from one fish smoker to another and was also affected by the season and the availability of fish. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. There is still virtually no infrastructure and access is by canoe. A modern cinderblock oven, on the other hand, requires only 5 hr to smoke 160 kg of fish and consumes 122 kg of wood at a cost of 10€. Different Oven Type Performance. In Cameroon, mangrove forests — made up of salt-tolerant trees and shrubs found between small streams and the sea — are in danger of becoming extinct because of the tendency of women to harvest them for smoking fish. Furthermore, the resulting product is better and less carcinogenic, and therefore could be more valuable. The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This study received funding from Dr. Mireille Sylviane DONGMO NGUEPI, lecturer from the University of Buea Cameroon, to whom the author is very grateful. This gap is due to the fact that Azobe is not as widespread in the south-west region of Cameroon as it is in the southern region and also that red mangrove wood is still available, unlike in Kribi.
2020 mangrove wood for smoking