It was protected by an artillery land battery called Fort San Miguel. The United States obtained Spanish Florida in 1819 in the Adams–Onís Treaty. [92], It became the seat of the richest diocese in New Spain in its first century, with the seat of the first diocese, formerly in Tlaxcala, moved there in 1543. Due to these, the Royal Fiscal of Manila wrote a letter to King Charles III of Spain, in which he advises to abandon the colony, but this was successfully opposed by the religious and missionary orders that argued that the Philippines was a launching pad for further conversions in the Far East. The region's history can be divided into three distinct periods, an initial period of engagement with Spanish colonial rule to 1563, during which there was a working relationship with the Zapotec ruling line and the establishment of Cortés's economic enterprises. Some cimarrón settlements sought autonomy, such as one led by Gaspar Yanga, with whom the crown concluded a treaty leading to the recognition of a largely black town, San Lorenzo de los Negros de Cerralvo, now called the municipality of Yanga. Nonetheless, much of northern New Spain had sparse indigenous population and attracted few Europeans. The crown sold public offices, with their purchasers expecting to quickly recoup the costs. Omissions? There was a high court Audiencia in the Kingdom of Guatemala. Then, in 1767, King Charles III ordered all Jesuits expelled from all Spanish possessions, including New Spain. The Chichimeca war lasted over fifty years, 1550–1606, between the Spanish and various indigenous groups of northern New Spain, particularly in silver mining regions and the transportation trunk lines. However, important precedents of exploration, conquest, and settlement and crown rule had been initially worked out in the Caribbean, which long affected subsequent regions, including Mexico and Peru. At first, conversion seemed to be happening rapidly. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec region of Oaxaca was important for its short transit between the Gulf Coast and the Pacific, facilitating both overland and sea trade. The gradual drying up of the central lake system created more dry land for farming, but the sixteenth-century population declines allowed Spaniards to expand their acquisition of land. The following are sub-collections of the Biofile Southwest 1.1. In turn, many of the intendancy boundaries became Mexican state boundaries after independence. The development of Mexico City itself is extremely important to the development of New Spain as a whole. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). At the end of the 18th century, the Spanish Crown authorized the opening of maritime ports in Yucatán and Campeche, as well as promoting free trade. [Note 3], The most important commodity for Oaxaca was cochineal red dye. He formed the 'Navy of Barlovento' (Armada de Barlovento), based in Veracruz, to patrol coastal regions and protect the harbors, port towns, and trade ships from pirates and privateers. In addition to the Church's explicit political role, the Catholic faith became a central part of Spanish identity after the conquest of last Muslim kingdom in the peninsula, the Emirate of Granada, and the expulsion of all Jews who did not convert to Christianity. An earlier Audiencia had been established in Santo Domingo in 1526 to deal with the Caribbean settlements. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Inquisition worked with the viceregal government to block the diffusion of liberal ideas during the Enlightenment, as well as the revolutionary republican and democratic ideas of the United States War of Independence and the French Revolution. Missions were established to convert the locals, and manage the agricultural industry. So then, the ships that set sail from Veracruz were generally loaded with merchandise from the East Indies originating from the commercial centers of the Philippines, plus the precious metals and natural resources of Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. "Audiencia of Guatemala" in, four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas, Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest, Carlos Francisco de Croix, 1st Marquess of Croix, Juan Vicente de Güemes, 2nd Count of Revillagigedo, Carlos Francisco de Croix, marqués de Croix, Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas, Economic Society of Friends of the Country, Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire, Revolution of Independence of the English colonies in North America, missions throughout the Baja California Peninsula, Historiography of Colonial Spanish America, List of governors in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, LANIC: Colección Juan Bautista Muñoz. Despite the sparcity of the Philippine population, it was profitable for Mexico City which used it as a transhipment point of cheap Asian products like Silk and Porcelain, however, due to the larger quantity of products from Asia it became a point of contention with the mercantilist policies of mainland Spain which supported manufacturing based on the capital instead of the colonies, in which case the Manila-Mexico commercial alliance was at odds against Madrid. In practice this meant that there was a concerted effort to appoint mostly peninsulares, usually military men with long records of service (as opposed to the Habsburg preference for prelates), who were willing to move around the global empire. No agreement could be reached and the northern boundary of New Spain remained unspecified until the Adams–Onís Treaty with the United States (1819). The Viceroyalty of New Spain was the name of the viceroy-ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in North America and its peripheries in Asia from 1535 to 1821. Its location on the main route between the viceregal capital and the port of Veracruz, in a fertile basin with a dense indigenous population, largely not held in encomienda, made Puebla a destination for many later arriving Spaniards. “They received in great disgust the arrival of peninsular officers as reinforcements, partly because they supposed they would be shoved aside in the promotions and partly because of racial antagonisms.”, Webre, Stephen. The capital was provisioned by the indigenous towns, and its labor was available for enterprises that ultimately created a colonial economy. [126], In 1610, Pedro de Peralta, a later governor of the Province of New Mexico, established the settlement of Santa Fe near the southern end of the Sangre de Cristo mountain range. This allowed expansion into the 'Province of New Mexico' or Provincia de Nuevo México. The Medici collect the Americas. Thus, the creation of the Council of the Indies became another, but extremely important, advisory body to the monarch. Viceroyalty of New Spain (1794) Close. A network of Spanish towns was established in this region of commercial agriculture, with Querétaro also becoming a center of textile production. [30] Since the Philippines was at the center of a crescent from Japan to Indonesia, it alternated into periods of extreme wealth congregating to the location,[31] to periods where it was the arena of constant warfare waged between it and the surrounding nation(s). [78] Even where infrastructure was improved, transit on the Veracruz-Puebla main road had other obstacles, with wolves attacking mule trains, killing animals, and rendering some sacks of foodstuffs unsellable because they were smeared with blood. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. In 1768, Gálvez received the following orders: "Occupy and fortify San Diego and Monterey for God and the King of Spain." Some isolated attacks on these shipments took place in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea by English and Dutch pirates and privateers. Guadalajara was founded northwest of Mexico City (1531–42) and became the dominant Spanish settlement in the region. Spain as an ally of Bourbon France was drawn into these conflicts. At first, gold was the most relevant mineral, but later the importance of this began to decline, giving way to silver. (The viceroy was captain-general of those provinces that remained directly under his command). Established in 1535, it initially included all land north of the Isthmus of Panama under Spanish control. Galvez was angry that the operation had proceeded against his orders to cancel, and ordered the arrest and imprisonment of Francisco de Miranda, aide-de-camp of Juan Manuel Cajigal, the commander of the expedition. The construction was done despite protests from some Indian villages when the infrastructure improvements, which sometimes included rerouting the road through communal lands. [140] Although generally the revenues from crops and animals were devoted to expenses in the spiritual sphere, cofradías' cattle were used for direct aid to community members during droughts, stabilizing the community's food supply. Although the repartimiento has historically been seen as an imposition on the indigenous, forcing them into economic relations they would rather have avoided and maintained by force,[150] recent work on eighteenth-century Oaxaca analyzes the nexus of crown officials (the alcaldes mayores) and Spanish merchants, and indigenous via the repartimiento. On the Cortés haciendas, blacks and mulattoes were essential to the profitability of the enterprises. In 1670 Chichimecas invaded Durango, and the governor, Francisco González, abandoned its defense. The indigenous population was very large in comparison to the Spanish, and there were relatively few Africans. While these Bajío renters could prosper in good times and achieved a level of independence, drought and other disasters made their choice more risky than beneficial. [68][69] For those based in the vice-regal capital of Mexico City itself, everywhere else were the "provinces." The most important was the Marquisate of the Valley of Oaxaca, property of Hernán Cortés and his descendants that included a set of vast territories where marquises had civil and criminal jurisdiction, and the right to grant land, water and forests and within which were their main possessions (cattle ranches, agricultural work, sugar mills, fulling houses and shipyards). thesis, 2014), appendix 3. The crown was also interested in generating more income for its coffers and Croix instituted the royal lottery in 1769. In 1528 the creation of a high court, the audiencia, marked the first step in a long and ultimately incomplete effort to establish Spanish royal authority throughout the region, followed by the appointment of a viceroy in 1535 to oversee royal interests from the capital of Mexico City. The Bourbons sought a return to the monarchical ideal of having those not directly connected with local elites as administrators, who in theory should be disinterested, staff the higher echelons of regional government. The Viceroy also sent Ruy López de Villalobos to the Spanish East Indies in 1542–1543. This early period came to a close with the death of the last native king in 1562 and the escheatment of Cortés's Tehuantepec encomiendas to the crown in 1563. Puebla built a significant manufacturing sector, mainly in textile production in workshops (obrajes), supplying New Spain and markets as far away as Guatemala and Peru. (The Viceroyalty o Peru wis creatit in 1542 followin the Spaingie conquest o the Inca Empire. After a period of decline in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, the Viceroyalty of New Spain took on new life when refreshed by two distinguished men: Antonio María de Bucareli (1771–79) and Juan Vicente de Güemes Pacheco de Padilla, 2° conde de Revillagigedo (1789–94); the latter was the last able viceroy in New Spain. In the economic sphere, unlike many other regions and ethnic groups in Mesoamerica, the Yucatec Maya did not have a pre-conquest network of regular markets to exchange different types of food and craft goods. [162], Cacao had been cultivated in the prehispanic period. [79] The north-south Acapulco route remained a mule track through mountainous terrain. Architects Pedro Martínez Vázquez and Lorenzo Rodriguez produced some fantastically extravagant and visually frenetic architecture known as Mexican Churrigueresque in the capital, Ocotlan, Puebla or remote silver-mining towns. In addition to viceroys, the following lists … For the indigenous in Oaxaca, cochineal was the only one "with which the [tributaries] maintain themselves and pay their debts" but it also had other advantages for them. Each of these was responsible to the Viceroy of New Spain in administrative matters (though not in judicial ones), but they also answered directly to the Council of the Indies. The period of colonization came to an end in 1819. [76][77] Despite some improvements, the roads still made transit difficult, particularly for heavy military equipment. These acted together with the general captaincies and the viceroyalties, they never changed the traditional administrative divisions, intendancies found strong resistance by the viceroyalties, general captaincies (also found great rejection in the Iberian peninsula when it was adopted), royal audiencias and ecclesiastical hierarchs for its important intervention in economic issues, by its centralist politics and by its opposition to cede very much of their functions to the intendants, to whom they bound them with a crown absolutism; in this context there was the outbreak of the Revolution of Independence of the English colonies in North America, which forced to protest the central points of the reformist program in the Spanish Americas, because due to the war with England in which Spain participated, it was not convenient to apply for the moment drastic measures that would put at risk the financial support of the Spanish-American subsidies; all this prevented its full application. The Caribbean islands and early Spanish explorations around the circum-Caribbean region had not been of major political, strategic, or financial importance until the conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521. Likewise, the exploration of the northwest coast by Captain James Cook of the British Navy and the subsequent fur trading activities by British ships was considered an encroachment on Spanish territory. [85], European diseases immediately affected the multiethnic Indian populations in the Veracruz area and for that reason Spaniards imported black slaves as either an alternative to indigenous labor or its complete replacement in the event of a repetition of the Caribbean die-off. Royalist military officer Agustín de Iturbide proposed uniting with the insurgents with whom he had battled, and gained the alliance of Vicente Guerrero, leader of the insurgents in a region now bearing his name, a region that was populated by immigrants from Africa and the Philippines,[57][58] crucial among which was the Filipino-Mexican General Isidoro Montes de Oca who impressed Criollo Royalist Itubide into joining forces with Vicente Guerrero by Isidoro Montes De Oca defeating royalist forces three times larger than his, in the name of his leader, Vicente Guerrero. [49][50], The crown sought reliable information about New Spain and dispatched José de Gálvez as Visitador General (inspector general), who observed conditions needing reform, starting in 1765, in order to strengthen crown control over the kingdom.[51]. By the middle of the 1700s, the Catholic order of Jesuits had established a number of missions on the Baja (lower) California peninsula. Even some foods associated with the native religions, like amaranth, were forbidden. The territory included the present-day Southwestern United States, Mexico, Central America (except Panama), the Caribbean, and the Philippines.It was ruled by a viceroy from Mexico City who governed on behalf of the King of Spain. [citation needed] While they often held the Christian god to be an important deity because it was the god of the victorious conquerors, they did not see the need to abandon their old beliefs. In 1776, the north-western frontier areas came under the administration of the new 'Commandancy General of the Internal Provinces of the North' (Provincias Internas), designed to streamline administration and invigorate growth. It was this status that barred the native population from the priesthood. New Spain, formally called the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Spanish: Virreinato de Nueva España), was a viceroyalty of the Spanish colonial empire, comprising primarily territories in what was known then as 'América Septentrional' or North America. In the second Treaty of Paris (1783), which ended the American Revolution, Great Britain returned control of Florida back to Spain in exchange for the Bahamas. Puebla's Spanish town council (cabildo) had considerable autonomy and was not dominated by encomenderos. That treaty also defined a northern border for New Spain, at 42° north latitude (now the northern boundary of the U.S. states of California, Nevada, and Utah). In 2020, in order to establish a more representing Empire and to take some of the enormous amount of work load off, Alfredo I instituted the Viceroyalty as a representation of New Spain. The preference for them meant that there was resentment from American-born elite men and their families, who were excluded from holding office. Virgin of Guadalupe. New Spain, the Viceroyalty ofAfter a decade of conquest, exploration, and administrative turmoil, Spain created the viceroyalty of New Spain in 1530 in order to centralize its control over the territories of the Aztecs, Mayas, and other indigenous groups of Mesoamerica, while curbing the evolution of powerful local fiefdoms among the conquistador class. It was ruled by Spain from the 1500s under the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and flew the Cross of Burgundy, until Napoleon conquered Spain in 1809. The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Spanish: Virreinato de Nueva España), was the political unit of Spanish territories in North America and Asia-Pacific.The territory included a fort on Vancouver Island, the present-day Southwestern United States, Mexico, Central America (except Panama), the Caribbean, the Philippines, Guam and the Mariana Islands, and most of Micronesia. The Third Treaty of San Ildefonso ceded to France the vast territory that Napoleon then sold to the United States in 1803, known as the Louisiana Purchase. The picture is far more complex, however; while the capital is enormously important as the center of power of various kinds (institutional, economic, social), the provinces played a significant role in colonial Mexico. It was profitable, especially following the Bourbon Reforms, which allowed trade within the Spanish empire. It was on this basis that the conquest, occupation, and government of the [Spanish] New World was achieved.[3]. After Columbus ' discovery of the Americas, Spain reaped the benefits of this New World. But it succumbed to the coalition forged by Agustín de Iturbide in 1821. This article was most recently revised and updated by,, The History Files - New Spain, Mexico, United States. It included what is now Mexico plus the current U.S. states of California, Nevada, Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, Oregon, Washington, Florida and parts of Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Kansas, Oklahoma, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana; the southwestern part of British Columbia of present-day Canada; the Captaincy General of Guatemala (which included the current countries of Guatemala, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the Mexican state of Chiapas); the Captaincy General of Cuba (current Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and Trinidad and Tobago); and the Captaincy General of the Philippines (including the Philippines, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Caroline Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, the Marshall Islands, and the short lived Spanish Formosa in modern-day northern Taiwan, as well as, for a century, the island of Tidore and the briefly occupied Sultanate of Ternate, both in modern-day Indonesia). In 1789, a naval outpost called Santa Cruz de Nuca (or just Nuca) was established at Friendly Cove in Nootka Sound (now Yuquot), Vancouver Island. (in Spanish), "Viceroyalty of New Spain (historical territory, Mexico)", "Latin America's lost histories revealed in modern DNA", "Filipinos In Mexico's History 4 (The Mexican Connection – The Cultural Cargo Of The Manila-Acapulco Galleons)", "American Indians in the Federal Decennial Census", Censo General De Habitantes (1921 Census), "El mestizaje es un mito, la identidad cultural sí importa", "The peopling of Mexico from origins to revolution", MEXICO'S COLONIAL ERA—PART I: The Settlement of New Spain, Index to the DeWitt Colony Region under New Spain, Map of the Border of the King's Dominion in the Northern America, Spanish involvement in the American Revolutionary War, Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador), Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua), Indigenous people during De Soto's travels, Independence of Spanish continental Americas, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France, Law of coartación (which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others), Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact theories, North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA),, Colonization history of the United States, States and territories established in 1519, States and territories established in 1535, States and territories disestablished in 1821, Spanish-speaking countries and territories, Spanish exploration in the Age of Discovery, All articles with broken links to citations, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2009, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2011, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Hurtado, Albert L. "Bolton and Turner: The Borderlands and American Exceptionalism.". [94] In its first hundred years, Puebla was prosperous from wheat farming and other agriculture, as the ample tithe income indicates, plus manufacturing woolen cloth for the domestic market. The establishment of religious missions and military presidios on the northern frontier became the nucleus of Spanish settlement and the founding of Spanish towns. Another activist viceroy carrying out reforms was Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, marqués de Valleheroso y conde de Jerena, who served from 1771 to 1779, and died in office. The Viceroyalty of New Spain was the name of the viceroy-ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in North America and its peripheries in Asia from 1535 to 1821. Even in the modern era, "Mexico" for many refers solely to Mexico City, with the pejorative view of anywhere but the capital is a hopeless backwater. [129], The Yucatán peninsula can be seen as a cul-de-sac,[130] and it does indeed have unique features, but it also has strong similarities to other areas in the South. The Kingdom of New Spain was established on August 18, 1521 following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire as a New World kingdom dependent on the Crown of Castile, since the initial funds for exploration came from Queen Isabella. New Spain was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521. The Viceroyalty of New Spain was created by royal decree on October 12, 1535 in the Kingdom of New Spain with a Viceroy as the king's "deputy" or substitute. Regardless of the possible imprecision related to the counting of Indigenous peoples living outside of the colonized areas, the effort that New Spain's authorities put on considering them as subjects is worth mentioning, as censuses made by other colonial or post-colonial countries did not consider American Indians to be citizens/subjects, as example the censuses made by the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata would only count the inhabitants of the colonized settlements. It wis ruled bi a vicery in Mexico Ceety who govrened the various territories o New Spain on behauf o the Keeng o Spain. [35] These circumstances contributed to the increasing difficulty of governing the Philippines. They were first introduced on a large scale in New Spain, by the Minister of the Indies José de Gálvez, in the 1770s, who originally envisioned that they would replace the viceregal system (viceroyalty) altogether.
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