Twelve important Siberian Crane sites along both Western and Central Flyways are designated in the Western/Central Asian Site Network for the Siberian Crane and other waterbirds established under CMS MoU and UNEP/GEF SCWP, and another 24 sites are proposed for inclusion. 2007). The expansion of lakes and subsequent habitat modification has been on-going in the breeding grounds of the eastern population since the 1950s (Pshennikov and Germogenov 2008). They are however noted to pick up beetles and birds eggs in captivity. 2004, Shilina et al. Determine movements and behavior of birds during their first summer to identify and manage key sites for sub-adult birds. [16] The contexts of several calls have been identified and several of these vary with sex. According to the satellite tracking results, the MNNR is a long-term refueling stopover site during the Siberian crane migration [24, 25] due to … In response, it is probable that a dam will be constructed at the outlet to Poyang Lake to stabilize winter water levels. Kazakhstan is the only country where long-term migration stopovers of Siberian Cranes are known. Pairs will walk around other pairs to threaten them and drive them away from their territory. Key protected areas where monitoring occurs include Kytalyk, Chaygurgino, and Middle Aldan (Russia), Momoge, Poyang and Dongting (China), and Naurzum (Kazakhstan). 2004) and Western Asian flocks (Zadegan et al. 2002], but only one wild bird has arrived since winter 2006/2007 (Zadegan et al. In addition, as of 2001, over 9,600 dams had been constructed on the five rivers feeding into Poyang Lake (more are still being constructed). Hunting on passage and wintering grounds in Iran is the key threat to the Central/Western population (G. Sundar in litt. It winters in the shallows and mudflats of seasonal lakes of the Yangtze Basin (del Hoyo et al. 2002, Shilina 2008) passing through Azerbaijan during migration (E. Sultanov et al. [9][10], A molecular phylogenetic study published in 2010 found that the genus Grus, as then defined, was polyphyletic. Hunting in Pakistan and Afghanistan during migration affects them as well. The species relies on a network of important wetlands along its migration route, which follows the Yana, Indigirka and Kolyma Rivers through Yakutia before continuing along the Aldan River and tributaries and south into China. Fast Facts: Siberian white crane of two Siberian Cranes on the wintering grounds in Iran in 2006 (Rusanov 2007). on 02/12/2020. In the summer grounds they feed on a range of plants including the roots of hellebore (Veratrum misae), seeds of Empetrum nigrum as well as small rodents (lemmings and voles), earthworms and fish. 2009). 2010). A Siberian crane that landed in Taiwan after getting lost on migration over a year ago even made international headlines when it was found wandering outside a train station. [14] The western population winters in Iran and some individuals formerly wintered in India south to Nagpur and east to Bihar. It is legally protected in all range states. This Critically Endangered bird is third rarest and the most threatened species of crane in the world. [17][30] In 1974 as many as 75 birds wintered in Bharatpur and this declined to a single pair in 1992 and the last bird was seen in 2002. Cranes are associated with lakes, such that the Sanskrit word for crane ‘sarasa’ is derived from Saras, meaning, lake or pond. Siberian Crane Wetland Project 2. Siberian Cranes are snowy white color birds and migrate during winter to India. Siberian Crane autumn migration 2002. Birds have also been recorded in summer in central Mongolia (Tseveenmyadag 2007, 2008). The key threat to this species is wetland loss and degradation at wintering sites and staging areas through diversion of water for human use, agricultural development, the development of oilfields and increased human utilisation. Poisoning targeted at waterbirds in China, e.g. 2013). The populations declined with changes in landuse, the draining of wetlands for agricultural expansion and hunting on their migration routes. Trend justificationThis species' population is suspected to have decreased rapidly over the last three generations, in line with levels of wetland conversion (for development and agriculture), hunting (especially on passage) and disturbance. In the case of Siberian cranes, the migratory routes followed by their different populations are also used by a number of other migratory birds which also include 32 endangered species. 2017). 1996). The call is very different from the trumpeting of most cranes and is a goose-like high pitched whistling toyoya. 2004), and inhibits recovery. The main wintering sites were in the middle to lower reaches of the Yangtze river; now almost the entire population winters at or very near Poyang Lake, China. They were noted to rest on the eastern end of the Volga delta. The structure of the distribution range and population of the Siberian crane in its regular breeding area in the northeastern Yakutian tundra are described, as well as the migration … Text account compilersTaylor, J., Allinson, T, Martin, R., Ashpole, J, Capper, D., Bird, J., Benstead, P., Chan, S., Calvert, R., Peet, N., Pilgrim, J., Symes, A. ContributorsHarris, J., Li, Z., Hung, K., Sultanov, E., Vladimirtseva, M., Khalafbeigi, P., Mirande, C., Zadegan, S., Ilyashenko, E., Sundar, G. Recommended citation Please login or … The world population was estimated in 2010 at about 3,200 birds, mostly belonging to the eastern population with about 95% of them wintering in the Poyang Lake basin in China, a habitat that may be altered by the Three Gorges Dam. The status of this crane is critical and the world population is estimated to be around 3200–4000, nearly all of them belonging to the eastern breeding population. 1996, G. Sundar in litt. Russian scientists started the “Flight of Hope” project which replicates the methodologies that have successfully helped to boost Whooping Crane populations in North America (G. Sundar in litt. They are distinctive among the cranes, adults are nearly all snowy white, except for their black primary feathers that are visible in flight and a naked red face, with two breeding populations in the Arctic tundra of western and eastern Russia. [35] Satellite telemetry was also used to track the migration of the eastern population in the mid-1990s, leading to the discovery of new resting areas along the species' flyway in eastern Russia and China. 1996). 2008) and counts of 3,400 at Momoge in May 2011 and at Poyang in early 2012. Juvenile has feathered mask and buff or cinnamon plumage. Poyang Lake thus drains more rapidly into the Yangtze during the low water period. Volunteer committees among hunters have been created in Afganistan and Pakistan to share information on crane conservation and extensive poster campaigns and a documentary film have been distributed (Ilyashenko and Mirande 2013). [32] They were sought after by hunters and specimen collectors. Comparisons of the DNA sequences of cytochrome-b however suggest that the Siberian crane is basal among the Gruinae and the wattled crane is retained as the sole species in the genus Bugeranus and placed as a sister to the Anthropoides cranes. [22] The female produces a higher pitched call which is the "loo" in the duetted "doodle-loo" call. A deep red mask covers the bird’s face from its bill to behind the eyes. Six birds were released in the Volga delta in 2012 (Rusanov et al. These cranes are omnivorous and breeds in the arctic tundra of Russia and Siberia. Migration of Birds in India: India is a winter home for most of the Siberian birds such as Siberian Cranes, Greater Flamingo, and Demoiselle Crane, also numerous species of birds from other regions of the world. The population is estimated at 3,500-4,000 individuals, based on a count of 3,750 at Poyang Lake in 2008 (Yu Changhao et al. India. 2013. Four flourishing colonies of captive Siberian Cranes successfully raise the species for education and conservation purposes. The fifth issue of the International Studbook was published in 2009 (Kashentseva and Belterman 2009). [14] During breeding season, both the male and female cranes are often seen with mud streaking their feathers. Justification of Red List CategoryThis long-lived crane qualifies as Critically Endangered owing to the likelihood that its global population will decline extremely rapidly over the next three generations following the development of the Three Gorges Dam, a large number of other dams on the Yangtze River and its tributaries, and now a proposed dam at the outlet to the Poyang lake in China which threatens the wintering grounds used by the vast majority of individuals. The population increase per year is less than 10%, the lowest recruitment rate among cranes. Most eggs are laid in the first week of June when the tundra is snow free. An individual that escaped from a private menagerie was shot in the Outer Hebrides in 1891. [16], Siberian cranes are widely dispersed in their breeding areas and are highly territorial. Siberia (/ s aɪ ˈ b ɪər i ə /; Russian: Сибирь, tr. 2017). The preferred nesting habitat in Yakutia was found to consist of damp tidal flat with well-developed vegetative cover made up of typical polygonal swamp associations of sedges and cottongrass (Eriophorum) forming sparse, short stands (Johnsgard 1983). 2011). 1996), as well as steppes near water, open jheels and swamps (Johnsgard 1983). Their resting place at the time of migration is the Lake Ab-i-Estada in Afghanistan. 1996). The spring migration commences in late-March or early-April (Cramp and Simmons 1980), with birds travelling in pairs or small groups of up to 10 (Johnsgard 1983). The Siberian Crane is presently an endangered species. Huanzidong Reservoir, Shenyang Region, may also affect this species. In yakut epics Olonkho shamans and shamaness transform into white cranes. This species breeds in two disjunct regions in the arctic tundra of Russia; the western population along the Ob Yakutia and western Siberia. Siberian cranes have been observed to have made their annual return to this part of India. 140 cm. on 02/12/2020. [26][27], Siberian cranes return to the Arctic tundra around the end of April and beginning of May. RANGE This Critically Endangered species is now only found in one main population in East Asia, with a [16] Like most cranes, the Siberian crane inhabits shallow marshlands and wetlands and will often forage in deeper water than other cranes. [12] The genus Leucogeranus had been introduced by the French biologist Charles Lucien Bonaparte in 1855. The western area in the river basins of the Ob, Konda and Sossva and to the east a much larger population in Yakutia between the Yana and the Alazeya rivers. Each spring approximately 500,000 Sandhill Cranes and some endangered Whooping Cranes use the Central Platte River Valley in Nebraska as a staging habitat during their migration north to breeding and nesting grounds in Canada, Alaska, and the Siberian Arctic. Huanzidong Reservoir is located northwest of Shenyang, the capital of Liaoning. The most recent drought forced birds to feed in sub-optimal upland habitat. The pattern of movement of migration of Siberian Crane is from very cold climate to warmer climate. In 1995 and 1996 thirteen Siberian cranes (Grus leucogeranus) were fitted with satellite transmitters on the breeding grounds in northeastern Siberia.Eleven of these 13 birds were successfully satellite tracked, and five of these 11 provided complete migratory information from their breeding grounds in Yakutia, Siberia, to their wintering area at Poyang Lake, in China. The Western Asian flock breeds in the basin of Konda and Alymka rivers, the centre of West Siberia, Russia (Sorokin and Markin 1996, Kanai et al. In Liaoning province, Huanzidong Reservoir in Shenyang region, 900 Siberian Cranes have been recorded during autumn migration (Li Fengshan 2003, Zhou Haixiang 2006), and 1,100 in spring (Bai Qing-Quan 2008), and numbers at Wolong Lake peaked at 1,200 in March 2008 (Bai Qing-Quan 2008). To help protect key wetland sites, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the International Crane Foundation conducted the UNEP/GEF Siberian Crane Wetland Project from 2003-2009, conceived in 1998, to protect and manage a network of sites across Asia critical to Siberian Cranes and 26 other threatened species (del Hoyo et al. Passage birds are recorded in Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan (Bragin 2005, Belyalova and Fundukchiev 2007, Shilina 2008). [13], Adults of both genders have a pure white plumage except for the black primaries, alula and primary coverts. Several types of crane come to Izumi, the most common being the hooded crane. [24], These cranes feed mainly on plants although they are omnivorous. Usually only a single chick survives due to aggression between young birds. [25] Specimens wintering in India have been found to have mainly aquatic plants in their stomachs. [21] The unison calls, duets between paired males and female however are more distinctive with marked differences across pairs. From 1991 to 2010, 139 captive-bred birds were released at breeding grounds (Kunovat River Basin), migration stopovers (south of Tyumen Region and Volga Delta) and wintering grounds in Iran (Shilina et al. Individual variation is very slight and most calls have a dominant frequency of about 1.4 kHz. A commemorative postage stamp on the Wildlife Series – Siberian Crane :. Male slightly larger than female. Birds use the Volga river delta as a migration stopover (Rusanov and Chernyavskaya 1996, Kanai et al. They show very high site fidelity for both their wintering and breeding areas, making use of the same sites year after year. A Monograph of the Cranes by Frans Ernst Blaauw (1897) 8. Construction of the Three Gorges Dam changed the hydrological pattern of the lower Yangtze river and may have a major impact on the wintering population, as may the quantity of sand-dredging that is also occurring along the Yangtze (Larson 2018). They are very diurnal, feeding almost all throughout the day. Juveniles are feathered on the face and the plumage is dingy brown. Non-breeding birds, typically those up to three years old, summer in Dauria on the border between Russia, Mongolia (Tseveenmyadag 2005) and China. Non-breeding Resting areas and stopovers on migration tend to consist of large, isolated wetlands (del Hoyo et al. The Siberian crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus), also known as the Siberian white crane or the snow crane, is a bird of the family Gruidae, the cranes. The usual clutch is two eggs, which are incubated by the female after the second egg is laid. IDENTIFICATION Adults – red skin on forehead, face and sides of the head, white plumage with black wingtips, reddish pink legs; juvenile – plumage mix of white and cinnamon-brown feathers, tan head. When calling, the birds stretch their neck forward. [citation needed], The Siberian crane was formally described by Peter Simon Pallas in 1773 and given the binomial name Grus leucogeranus. In addi-tion, there have been some unconfirmed Siberian Crane sightings at breeding sites in West Siberia (Markin et al 2007) and regular observations of 2–7 Siberian Cranes during migration stopovers in Naurzum nature reserve in Kazakhstan (Bragin 2003, 2005, Migration stopovers are used by … The Siberian Crane Grus leucogeranus is regarded as a critically endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, with a global population of 3,500 to 4,000 individuals (Bird Life International 2016).In China (its main wintering range) it is listed as a category I nationally protected species (Li et al. Downloaded from Issued for: Pakistan Post Office is issuing a special postage stamp on Siberian Crane of Rs. [36] The Siberian crane is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies and is subject of the Memorandum of Understanding concerning Conservation Measures for the Siberian Crane concluded under the Bonn Convention. Issued by Pakistan. They maintain feeding territories in winter but may form small and loose flocks, and gather closer at their winter roosts. Thus, conserving and protecting the Siberian crane would indeed offer conservation services to many other critical species. Vuosalo, E. 2013. It makes the longest migrations of any crane species, up to 10,000 miles round trip, and habitat loss along its migration routes is a major cause of the crane's population crisis. 2002), and winters in Fereydoonkenar in Iran (recently c.10 birds [Kanai et al. 2011). They also swallow pebbles and grit to aid in crushing food in their crop. The most significant threat to the eastern flyway is a proposed dam at the outlet of Poyang Lake to stabilize water flows for navigation, irrigation, and other economic purposes–to be built in part in response to impacts of the Three Gorges Dam on water levels in the Yangtze River. Limited fresh water has caused marshes in the Huanghe Delta National Reserve to dry up, and the harvesting of reeds by people has seriously disturbed cranes (Shan Kai et al. Conservation Actions ProposedStrengthen conservation of major wetlands in China that serve as critical migration and wintering habitat for the East Asian population through research, management, and policy activities. The Siberian Crane has a migration pattern that spans 4000 miles from the Russian Arctic to China, India, Nepal and Iran. [14][15][16][17][18][19] There is a single record of an outsized male of this species weighing 15 kg (33 lb). 3.00 value on September 8, 1983 in order to increase public awareness of the plight of this rare and beautiful bird which is facing the threat of extinction. The eastern populations winter mainly in the Poyang Lake area in China. Issued on Sep 8, 1983. ", "A sociogram for the cranes of the world", "Historical, Sociocultural, and Mythological Aspects of Faunal Conservation in Rajasthan", "The reported occurrence of Grus leucogeranus, "Discovery of breeding grounds of a Siberian Crane Grus leucogeranus flock that winters in Iran, via satellite telemetry", "Migration routes and important resting areas of Siberian cranes Crus leucogeranus between northeastern Siberian and China as revealed by satellite tracking", International Crane Foundation's Siberian crane page, Online broadcasting of white cranes’ lives from the Oksk hatchery arose,, IUCN Red List critically endangered species, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Taxonbars with automatically added original combinations, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Migration routes, breeding and wintering sites, This page was last edited on 17 November 2020, at 09:09. Bogs and salt-licks used by ungulates, particularly Alces alces, offer greater foraging resources as trampling by the ungulates exposes rhizomes and roots on which the cranes forage (Degtyarev and Sleptsov 2013). The North East Asian Crane Site Network has been established under the East Asia-Australasian Flyway Partnership. The area is protected, and the birds are fed every day. Crane Working Group of Eurasia Newsletter 4-5: 39-30. Although water releases to sustain wetland functions have been negotiated, sustaining these releases over the long term will be important, especially for Momoge. The fore-crown, face and side of head is bare and brick red, the bill is dark and the legs are pinkish. Severe drought caused Poyang Lake to shrink dramatically in the winters of 2003-2004, 2006-2007 (Anon 2007), and 2010-2011. Breeding site It builds a large mound of grass and sedge 50-80 cm in diameter emerging above water 25-60 cm deep (del Hoyo et al. Eleven range states signed a Memorandum of Understanding under the Convention for Migratory Species (CMS MoU) and develop Conservation Plans every three years. Construction of the Three Gorges Dam has changed the hydrological pattern of the lower Yangtze River, resulting in lower water levels in winter. Siberian Crane Flyway Coordination 5. 2017). The unison call differed from that of most cranes and some authors suggested that the Siberian crane belonged in the genus Bugeranus along with the wattled crane. Siberian Crane Flyway News: 10. The eastern populations migrate during winter to China while the western population winters in Iran and formerly, in Bharatpur, India . The species breeds in Russia and winters in China, Iran, and formerly in India, undertaking a 5,000 km migration … In Western Siberia the establishment of oilfields and associated urban developments are significant causes of habitat loss and degradation (Van Impe 2013).Increasing levels of human disturbance are also a problem, particularly at Poyang Lake, where crab farming may restrict access to high-quality foraging habitat (Burnham et al. 2009, P. Khalafbeigi in litt. in litt. 2012, Wang et al. 1996) where it occurs in moss-covered marshland (Johnsgard 1983), tidal bogs, marshes and other wetland depressions with unrestricted visibility (del Hoyo et al. It arrives on its breeding grounds in late May (Johnsgard 1983), and eggs are generally laid in June (Johnsgard 1983). Breeding It breeds in the lowland taiga and taiga-tundra transition zone (del Hoyo et al. The Eastern Flyway population breeds between the rivers Kolyma and Yana and south to the Morma mountains in Yakutia. Along eastern migration routes, water has been diverted from the Zhalong and Momoge National Nature Reserve for human use. Birdlife Species Factsheet 3. International Crane Foundation - Siberian Crane page 4. Two regional populations are recognised; the western population has a small remnant population estimated at less than 20 individuals (Van Impe 2013). Adults all white, except for dark red mask extending from bill to behind eye, black primaries, yellow iris and reddish legs. comm. This includes: 1) water management at Poyang needs to sustain wetland productivity and ensure that extensive mudflats and shallow water areas are available throughout the winter, 2) strengthen integrated water management at migratory stopover sites in north-east China, guided by on-going monitoring of the condition of these wetlands, to support wetland ecosystems that can support cranes, 3) maintain or improve water quality at key stopover and migration sites to avoid detrimental ecosystem change or direct impacts on crane survival, 4) continue long-term research on the effects of changes in water levels on water plants and water birds at Poyang and at sites in north-east China, and 5) protect and manage additional stopover sites, especially from Liaoning to Jiangxi Provinces, based on further investigation of migratory habitats. They dip their beaks in mud and smear it on their feathers. Population justificationThe population is estimated at 3,500-4,000 individuals, based on a count of 3,750 at Poyang Lake in 2008 (Yu Changhao et al. Habitat The Siberian Crane is the most aquatic member of its family, breeding and wintering in wetlands, and shows a general preference for wide expanses of shallow (up to 30 cm) fresh water with good visibility. Surveys of the districts and counties around the lake show an increase in birds using the location from around a hundred birds in 1980/81 to an estimated 3,902 individuals in winter 2002/2003, since when the population has fluctuated between lows of around 2,000 individuals in 2008/2009 and 2012/2013, and highs of 3,800-4,000 individuals in the winters of 2005/2006, 2007/2008 and 2011/2012 (Li Fengshan et al. Conservation Actions UnderwayCITES Appendix I. CMS Appendix I and II. [6][7][8] The Siberian crane lacks the complex tracheal coils found in most other cranes but shares this feature with the wattled crane. [2][3] The specific epithet is derived from the classical Greek words leukos for "white" and geranos for a "crane". Identify, legally protect and manage key staging areas in Yakutia, accompanied by mitigation of development impacts along the flyway. Foster relationships with hunters to improve awareness and promote sustainable hunting of waterbirds, and to engage hunters to protect and report sightings of Siberian Cranes, especially in Western and Central Asia. the Memorandum of Understanding concerning Conservation Measures for the Siberian Crane, "Record of two unique observations of the Indian cheetah in Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri", "Phylogeny of cranes (Gruiformes: Gruidae) based on cytochrome-b DNA sequences", "Phenetic relationships within the family Gruidae", "Mitochondrial genome sequences and the phylogeny of cranes (Gruiformes: Gruidae)", "Flufftails, finfoots, rails, trumpeters, cranes, limpkin", "Tableaux synoptiques de l'ordre des Hérons", "[Sexual and individual differences in the vocal repertoire of adult Siberian Cranes (, "How long do birds live The passenger pigeon", "Will the Three Gorges Dam affect the underwater light climate of Vallisneria spiralis L. and food habitat of Siberian crane in Poyang Lake? Only two sightings were reported from the Volga Delta in 2012 (Rusanov et al. Behaviour This species is migratory (del Hoyo et al. The Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus), also known as the Siberian white crane or the snow crane, is a bird of the family Gruidae, the cranes. A hydro-electric scheme is also proposed for the headwaters of the Aldan River basin, the construction of power lines northwards to Yakutsk, and oil and gas prospecting (Prentice and Stishov 2007). 2004, Mirande 2007, 2010, Prentice 2010). For Siberian natives – Yakuts and Yukaghirs - the white crane is a sacred bird associated with sun, spring and kind celestial spirits ajyy. Van Impe, J. They are distinctive among the cranes, adults are nearly all snowy white, except for their black primary feathers that are visible in flight and with two breeding populations in the Arctic tundra of western and eastern Russia. BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Leucogeranus leucogeranus. They were earlier thought to be predominantly fish eating on the basis of the serrated edge to their bill, but later studies suggest that they take animal prey mainly when the vegetation is covered by snow. This week, we received an exciting update on the Siberian Crane fall migration in eastern China from Mr. Zhou Haixiang, who recently visited Huanzidong Reservoir in Liaoning Province. Find out where and when this bird was seen. The iris is yellowish. 1996). Cooperate with gas and oil companies in Russia and China to minimize disturbance and habitat degradation. Esquisse de l'avifaune de la Sibérie Occidentale: une revue bibliographique. Population number. The eastern populations migrate during winter to China while the western population winters in Iran and formerly, in Bharatpur, India . [5] The genus Megalornis was used for the cranes by George Robert Gray and this species was included in it, while Richard Bowdler Sharpe suggested a separation from Grus and used the genus Sarcogeranus. Captive-raised birds have been released in an effort to maintain the Central Asian (G. Sundar in litt. It typically lays two eggs but generally does not fledge more than one chick. This migration was recorded in the 1960s to occur in groups of 12-15 individuals (Johnsgard 1983). Our last location for No. 1 ). Investigate potential impacts of climate change on Yakutian breeding grounds. If the impacts of these developments prove to be less damaging than is feared, the species may warrant downlisting. 2013). Some rarer types like the Siberian crane (now endangered) also migrate here. The routes followed by migratory birds on their journeys between their breeding and wintering places are known as flyways. They typically weigh 4.9–8.6 kg (11–19 lb) and stand about 140 cm (55 in) tall. It is a long distance migrant and among the cranes, makes one of the longest migrations. [16] The eastern population winters on the Yangtze River and Lake Poyang in China, and the western population in Fereydoon Kenar in Iran. Operation of its sluice gates has not been determined, but early proposals called for significantly increased water levels through the winter season, which would make most or all current foraging areas for the cranes inaccessible, perhaps causing extremely rapid declines in the next three generations. The species arrived on its wintering grounds in Pakistan in October, but seldomly earlier than November-December further east (Cramp and Simmons 1980, Johnsgard 1983). The eggs hatch in about 27 to 29 days. [33] The western population may even have wintered as far west as Egypt along the Nile.[34]. Hunting societies throughout the former Soviet Union countries (Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan) have been engaged and now distribute information about crane conservation when issuing hunting licenses (Ilyashenko and Mirande 2013). Alauda 81(4): 269-296. The main autumn migration usually begins towards the end of September (Johnsgard 1983), although birds (thought to be non-breeders [Cramp and Simmons 1980]) have been recorded on passage over the Volga delta as late as October-December (Cramp and Simmons 1980). Jilin province hosts birds during both passage periods during March to May and September to November, with numbers at Momoge National Nature Reserve peaking at 3,590 individuals in May 2012 and 3,639 individuals in late October 2012 (Jiang Hongxing 2013). Disturbance from boating activities is also a problem at stopover sites. The central population, which once wintered in Keoladeo National Park,Bharatpur India, is extinct. Climate change may be a long term threat to breeding sites, with changes in the permafrost layer causing expansion of lakes and the loss of islands, peninsulas and low-lying shorelines (Harris 2008, Van Impe 2013).
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