As Shaka grew older, he recalled with anger his tormenting by Elangeni members. Shaka kaSenzangakhona, most commonly known as Shaka Zulu, is best known for bringing together different factions of the Zulu community, building both a state and a powerful sense of identity. His father was the chief of the Zulus and his mother, Nandi, was the daughter of the chief of a nearby clan. In 1828, Shaka was assassinated by his half brothers, Dingane and Mhlangana. By 1819 the newly forged Zulu nation was the largest and most populous ever seen in southeastern Africa. Other notable figures to arise from the Mfecane include Soshangane, who expanded from the Zulu area into what is now Mozambique. Shaka Zulu, London's largest South African restaurant, opened its doors in August 2010 with a special royal blessing from the Zulu King, HRH Goodwill Zwelithini. Most popular accounts are based on E.A. In a two-day running battle, the Zulu inflicted a resounding defeat on their opponents. Despite carrying out this revenge, Shaka continued his pursuit of Zwide. And as they stemmed from ancient families it is entirely possible that states of that type existed in a more remote past. Indeed, the core Zulu had to retreat before several Ndwandwe incursions; the Ndwandwe was clearly the most aggressive grouping in the sub-region. argue that Shaka "changed the nature of warfare in Southern Africa" from "a ritualised exchange of taunts with minimal loss of life into a true method of subjugation by wholesale slaughter. 1828 - Shaka Zulu is assassinated by his brothers. Those seeking an explanation for Shaka’s brutality may begin with his childhood. Initial Zulu success rested on fast-moving surprise attacks and ambushes, but the Voortrekkers recovered and dealt the Zulu a severe defeat from their fortified wagon laager at the Battle of Blood River. [13], It is also supposed that Shaka introduced a larger, heavier version of the Nguni shield. Zulu Victory: The Epic of Isandlwana and the Cover-Up by Ron Lock and Peter Quantrill (Greenhill, 2002) The Rise and Fall of the Zulu Nation by John Laband ... British History Timeline. Book chapter. Seinem Erfol… [37][38][39], According to Julian Cobbing, the development of the view that Shaka was the monster responsible for the devastation is based on the need of apartheid era historians to justify the apartheid regime's racist policies. A number of historians[who?] Epic Rap Battles of History Season 4. live-20211. With Qwabe, Hlubi and Mkhize support, Shaka was finally able to summon a force capable of resisting the Ndwandwe (of the Nxumalo clan). Shaka was born in 1787. 1828, September 22, Shaka is assassinated by Mbopa, and two of Shaka’s half-brothers, Dingane and Mhlangana. The exact location is unknown. As monarch, he held tremendous influence in the Zulu kingdom. Shaka was an illegitimate son of a minor chief, Senzangakhona, while his half-brother Dingane was legitimate. He supplemented this with a mixture of diplomacy and patronage, incorporating friendly chieftains, including Zihlandlo of the Mkhize, Jobe of the Sithole, and Mathubane of the Thuli. Shaka Zulu vs Julius Caesaris the fifty-sixth installment of Epic Rap Battles of History and the eleventh episode of Season 4. This remarkable king, was a contemporary of Napolean, and his achievements rivalled the Emperor's. With his experience learned from the Mthethwa, he transformed his clan’s military from a largely ceremonial force into a powerful army capable of both defense and aggression. broke college graduate for now. Shaka developed the iklwa spear and ishla… After sifting through these sources and noting their strengths and weaknesses, Morris generally credits Shaka with a large number of military and social innovations, and this is the general consensus in the field. Most historians[who?] There was no need to record messages, he held, since his messengers stood under penalty of death should they bear inaccurate tidings. It was released on July 20th, 2015. African & African American Experience. Originally aired as a British mini-series, Shaka Zulu follows the rise of Shaka (Henry Cele) to the king of the Zulus during the early 19th century when the British were beginning to gain control of Africa. 1816-1826 - Shaka Zulu founds and expands the Zulu empire, creates a formidable fighting force. Michal Lesniewski has criticised Wylie for some[which?] African American History: Research Guides & Websites, Global African History: Research Guides & Websites, African Americans and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Alma Stephenson Dever Page on Afro-britons, With Pride: Uplifting LGBTQ History On Blackpast, Preserving Martin Luther King County’s African American History, Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), Envoys, Diplomatic Ministers, & Ambassadors, African American Newspapers, Magazines, and Journals, Religious Organizations - Quakers (Society of Friends), Education - Historically Black Colleges (HBCU). [17][18] He also drilled the troops to carry out encirclement tactics. Sigujana's reign was short, however, as Dingiswayo, anxious to confirm his authority, lent Shaka a regiment so that he was able to put Sigujana to death, launching a relatively bloodless coup that was substantially accepted by the Zulu. Shaka (Tshaka, Tchaka or Chaka; sometimes referred to as Shaka Zulu; was the most influential leader of the Zulu Kingdom. Shaka kaSenzangakhona is considered as one of the greatest rulers in the history of the Zulu Kingdom. Is this a good timeline of the major biographical highlights of Shaka Zulu? Shaka's enemies described him as ugly in some respects. Famous for the bloody battles of Isandlwana and Rorke’s Drift, the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879 saw over 15,000 British troops invade the independent nation of Zululand in present-day South Africa. 1816 - The Zulu Kingdom was Founded  1824 - British settlers establish Port Natal 1828 - Shaka assassinated by Dingane 1834 - Great Trek and Boer-Zulu war 1838 - Battle of Blood River Battle between the Zulu and the Boer on the Ncome river. Because of his background as a soldier, Shaka taught the Zulus that the most effective way of becoming powerful quickly was by conquering and controlling other tribes. He had a big nose, according to Baleka of the Qwabe, as told by her father. Shaka Zulu (1787-1828) Home - Book Shop - Wars - Battles - Biographies - Timeline - Weapons - Blog - Full Index - Subjects - Concepts - Country - Documents - Pictures & Maps . Though much remains unknown about Shaka's personal appearance, sources tend to agree he had a strong, muscular body and was not fat. For in the space of twelve years, he organized an immense army of skilled and disciplined warriors, conquering and pacifying a territory larger than Europe. [16] He was tall and his skin tone was dark brown. I again reiterate that I am not an historian but merely relate stories that I had heard as a child and stories I have heard and read about during the course of my life. For in the space of twelve years, he organized an immense army of skilled and disciplined warriors, conquering and pacifying a territory larger than Europe. Although he preferred social and propagandistic political methods, he also engaged in a number of battles.[4]. This ambiguity continues to lend the image of Shaka its continued power and influence, almost two centuries after his death.[31]. How to make a timeline? Shaka kaSenzangakhona is considered as one of the greatest rulers in the history of the Zulu Kingdom. Furthermore, it is believed that he taught his warriors how to use the shield's left side to hook the enemy's shield to the right, exposing the enemy's ribs for a fatal spear stab. Shaka usurps the Zulu Chiefdom. Is this a good timeline of the major biographical highlights of Shaka Zulu? It is sometimes held that such support was used more for very light forces designed to extract tribute in cattle and slaves from neighbouring groups. As for the ruling Qwabe, they began re-inventing their genealogies to give the impression that Qwabe and Zulu were closely related in the past. Malcolm in 1950. Loyalty was also maintained through fear, as anyone who was suspected of rivaling Dingane was killed. The antique dealer in Pietermaritzburg, Natal, R.S.A., from whom I … Shaka observed several demonstrations of European technology and knowledge, but he held that the Zulu way was superior to that of the foreigners. He is credited with creating a fighting force that devastated the entire region. Glossary Only terms used frequently are included in this glossary. From a military standpoint, historian John Keegan notes exaggerations and myths that surround Shaka, but nevertheless maintains: Fanciful commentators called him Shaka, the Black Napoleon, and allowing for different societies and customs, the comparison is apt. [13] More modern researchers argue that such explanations fall short, and that the general Zulu culture, which included other tribes and clans, contained a number of practices that Shaka could have drawn on to fulfill his objectives, whether in raiding, conquest or hegemony. Carolyn Hampton, “Shaka Zulu,” in New Encyclopedia of Africa, John The "loins" would be committed wherever the enemy impi threatened to break out of the, Zulu king Shaka is referenced in Jamaican, Shaka has been featured as a playable leader for the Zulu civilization in all six, This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 11:35. General histories of Southern Africa are also valuable including Noel Mostert's "Frontiers" and a detailed account of the results from the Zulu expansion, J.D. These peoples were never defeated in battle by the Zulu; they did not have to be. [7], In the initial years, Shaka had neither the influence nor reputation to compel any but the smallest of groups to join him, and upon Dingiswayo's death, Shaka moved southwards across the Thukela River, establishing his capital Bulawayo in Qwabe territory; he never did move back into the traditional Zulu heartland. It is probable that, over time, the Zulu were able to hone and improve their encirclement tactics. [citation needed], Shaka granted permission to Europeans to enter Zulu territory on rare occasions. Shaka then led a fresh reserve some 70 miles (110 km) to the royal kraal of Zwide, ruler of the Ndwandwe, and destroyed it. A standard general reference work in the field is Donald Morris's "The Washing of The Spears", which notes that the sources, as a whole, for this historical era are not the best. EsNews Boxing. These numbers are, however, controversial. South Africa Timeline BCE. Located in the Heart of Camden, the iconic Shaka Zulu is the most unique party setting for all you instagrammers we’ll be opening our doors from 10pm every week and table bookings are recommended. The profile and history of Tshaka King of the Zulu (a.k.a Chaka, Shaka), he was one of the greatest leaders of his time. The hypothesis that several states of a new kind arose about the same time does not take account of the contrast between the short line of Shaka and the long pedigrees of his most important opponents – especially the coalition grouped around his deadly enemy Zwide (d. 1822). Claybmorrison6147. Prior to Shaka, warfare in Southern Africa consisted mainly of tribes throwing spears at one another and ritually challenging warriors from other tribes. Dingiswayo was impressed by Shaka’s courage and endurance and remained with the Mthethwa until he learned of the death of his father, Senzangakhona, in 1816. The founder of the *Zulu Kingdom. Shaka, Zulu chief (1816–28), founder of Southern Africa’s Zulu Empire. September 1828 in KwaDukuza, beides im heutigen Südafrika; auch Shaka Zulu, Shaka ka Senzangakhona, d. h. Shaka, Sohn des Senzangakhona) war ein König der Zulu. He was sucessful in uniting all the ethnic groups in southern Africa against the despicable vestiges of colonialism. Shaka Zulu, a contemporary engraving from Wiki commons When Shaka Zulu was born, around the year 1787, Senzangakhona was the nominal chief of the Zulu, a small band of about 1500 members. Confirmation of such accounts can also be seen in modern archaeology of the village of Lepalong, an entire settlement built underground to shelter remnants of the Kwena people from 1827 to 1836 against the tide of disruption that engulfed the region during Shakan times.[41]. Her father also told Baleka that Shaka spoke as though "his tongue were too big for his mouth." [8], As Shaka became more respected by his people, he was able to spread his ideas with greater ease. After organizing the Zulu government, he transformed the Zulu army and led it into battle against neighboring tribes. This combination has been compared to the standardisation implemented by the reorganised Roman legions under Marius. Shaka’s actions became simultaneously more tyrannical, ruthless and bizarre as power concentrated in his hands. Timeline of Shaka. 1787, born near Melmoth in the KwaZulu-Natal Province 1803, Shaka is sent to be a warrior for Dingiswayo of the Mthethwa clan 1816, Shaka assumes leadership as Chief of the Zulu after the death of Senzangakona 1817, the “Mfecane” (annihilation) begins. His father was the chief of the Zulus and his mother, Nandi, was the daughter of the chief of a nearby clan. Middleton and Joseph C. Miller, eds., (New York: Scribner’s, 2008); In fact, more than half of the Novel references many historical events that took place during Shaka's reign. Chaka by Thomas Mofolo and Daniel P. Kunene. Shaka Zulu was founder of the Zulu nation, a born leader and a brilliant general. He served as a warrior for six years under the reign of Dingiswayo, the Mthethwa’s chief. Shaka Zulu (c.1787–1828) Source: A Dictionary of African Politics Author(s): Nic Cheeseman, Eloïse Bertrand, Sa’eed Husaini. When the Mthethwa forces were defeated and scattered temporarily, the power vacuum was filled by Shaka. Although he later became a tyrant, Shaka… As he incorporated rival groups, the Zulu Empire’s population reached an estimated 250,000 and his state emerged as the largest in the history of Southern Africa. Shaka was the son of Senzangakona, His teachings greatly influenced the social outlook of the Zulu people. 1879. Using different informants and genealogical charts, A.T. Bryant arrived at similar conclusions. hold that popular depictions of Shaka as a suddenly appearing genius creating innovation are overstated, and that to the contrary, Shaka was a borrower and imitator of indigenous methods, customs and even ruler-lineages already in place. Traditional Zulu praise song, English translation by Ezekiel Mphahlele, Other Zulu sources are sometimes critical of Shaka, and numerous negative images abound in Zulu oral history. Henry Cele stars as the titular King of the Zulu. When Shaka's father died, Shaka assumed control of the Zulu clan, its 1,500 people and 150 sq.kms of territory. Who won? The Gaza Empire. Shaka's troops maintained a strong position on the crest of the hill. Emperor Shaka the Great: A Zulu Epic by Mazisi Kunene. [14], The Zulu monarch was killed by three assassins sometime in 1828; September is the most frequently cited date, when almost all available Zulu manpower had been sent on yet another mass sweep to the north. Though Shaka probably did not invent the iklwa, according to Zulu scholar John Laband, the leader did insist that his warriors train with the weapon, which gave them a "terrifying advantage over opponents who clung to the traditional practice of throwing their spears and avoiding hand-to-hand conflict. He is credited with creating a fighting force that devastated the entire region. Shaka is often said to have been dissatisfied with the long throwing assegai, and is credited with having introduced a new variant of the weapon: the iklwa, a short stabbing spear with a long, broad, and sword-like, spearhead. [13] Some of these practices are shown below. The illegitimate son of Senzangakhona, king of the Zulus, Shaka received education and military assistance from the Mthethwa empire and its then leader, Dingiswayo. Shaka chose a particularly gruesome revenge on her, locking her in a house and placing jackals or hyenas inside: they devoured her and, in the morning, Shaka burned the house to the ground. Massacres begin as a result of her death. 1826, Shaka faces Zwides son, Sikhunyane. Timeline. Shaka kaSenzangakhona (c. July 1787 – 22 September 1828), also known as Shaka Zulu (Zulu pronunciation: [ˈʃaːɠa]), was the King of the Zulu Kingdom from 1816 to 1828. Shaka became king of the newly emerged Zulu kingdom. The series was based on Sinclair's novel of the same name. The Zulus rose to prominence during the reign of King Shaka (1818-1828). Their major victory at the Battle of Isandlwana was the most prominent one, but they also forced back a British column at the Battle of Hlobane, by deploying fast-moving regiments over a wide area of rugged ravines and gullies, and attacking the British who were forced into a rapid disorderly fighting retreat, back to the town of Kambula.[23]. Make educational timelines or create a timeline for your company website. 1824 European artist's impression of Shaka with a long throwing, A muster and dance of Zulu regiments at Shaka's kraal, as recorded by European visitors to his kingdom, c. 1827, Expansion of power and conflict with Zwide, Shakan methods versus European technology, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFOmer-Cooper1966 (, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Newitt, Malyn D.D. The Zulu Empire begins to collapse. 1787-1828), son of Senzangakona, king from 1816 to 1828. Historian Donald Morris states that Shaka's first major battle against Zwide, of the Ndwandwe, was the Battle of Gqokli Hill, on the Mfolozi river. Forego a bottle of soda and donate its cost to us for the information you just learned, and feel good about helping to make it available to everyone! The ripple effect caused by these mass migrations would become known (though only in the twentieth century) as the Mfecane (annihilation). When Senzangakhona (Shaka's father) died in 1816, Shaka's younger half-brother Sigujana assumed power as the legitimate heir to the Zulu chiefdom. In 1826 the Zulu led by Shaka defeat the nation of Ndwandwe and adds much land to the Zulu kingdom furthering their control of south Africa. Shaka Zulu established the Zulu Empire and revolutionized warfare in Southern Africa in the early 19th Century. How to make a ... Dinizulu's son Solomon follows his father as king or chief of the Zulu people, and direct descendants of Shaka's brother Mwande continue to inherit until today 1,897 BCE. The Zulu become a powerful nation. Zulu kingdom timeline. It is said that Shaka was conceived when the two engaged in uku-hlobonga, a form of sexual foreplay without penetrative sex that was allowed to unmarried couples. Under Shaka (1819-1828), the Zulu territory expanded phenomenally. When Shaka's mother Nandi died for example, the monarch ordered a massive outpouring of grief including mass executions, forbidding the planting of crops or the use of milk, and the killing of all pregnant women and their husbands. Supposedly if he killed Magaye, it would appear to be out of jealousy because Magaye was so handsome and "Shaka himself was ugly, with a protruding forehead". His father, Senzangakhona, was a minor chief of one of the Zulu-speaking clans and his mother, Nandi, was daughter of Chief Mbhengi of the rival clan. PDF The Anatomy of the Zulu Army: From Shaka to Cetshwayo 1818-1879 EBook. He addressed this by allowing them to marry and set up homesteads (which was forbidden during Shaka's rule) and they also received cattle from Dingane. This remarkable king, was a contemporary of Napolean, and his achievements rivalled the Emperor's. Napier", "The Zulu Military Organization and the Challenge of 1879", "Shaka Zulu's brutality was exaggerated, says new book", "Warfare, Political Leadership, and State Formation: The Case of the Zulu Kingdom, 1808-1879",, Wikipedia articles with style issues from September 2017, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2014, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from September 2017, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2015, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The main force, the "chest," closed with the enemy, While the enemy impi was pinned by the "chest," the "horns" would, The "loins," a large reserve, was hidden, seated, behind the "chest" with their backs to the battle, for the sake of them not losing any confidence. There is no evidence to suggest that Shaka betrayed Dingiswayo. His 10-year-long kingship resulted in a massive number of deaths, mostly due to the disruptions the Zulu caused in neighbouring tribes, although the exact death toll is a matter of scholarly dispute. Timelines; Archives; Publications; go. Unter seine Herrschaft fiel der Aufstieg der Zulu von einem kleinen Clan zu einem mächtigen Volk mit Macht über einen großen Teil des Gebiets des heutigen Südafrika. Shaka's reign coincided with the start of the Mfecane ("Upheaval" or "Crushing"), a period of devastating warfare and chaos in southern Africa between 1815 and about 1840 that depopulated the region. Timeline. and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., eds., (New York: Oxford University Press, ... 1816 - Shaka Zulu forms the Zulu Kingdom. [15] Dingane ruled for some twelve years, during which time he fought, disastrously, against the Voortrekkers, and against another half-brother, Mpande, who, with Boer and British support, took over the Zulu leadership in 1840, ruling for some 30 years. In 1820 Shaka takes control of the entire Zulu Kingdom and begins his conquest. They spent two whole days recuperating in one instance, and on another they rested for a day and two nights before pursuing their enemy. It was not until around 1825 that the two military leaders met, near Phongola, in their final meeting. Cementing the Realm Shaka set about consolidating his empire, building enormous military barracks in strategic locations and populating them with vast numbers of new recruits. [16] Several other historians of the Zulu, and the Zulu military system, however, affirm the mobility rate of up to 50 miles per day.[19][20]. You know nothing, hint guessers. Follow @DrJohnRickard Tweet. Shaka still recognised Dingiswayo and his larger Mthethwa clan as overlord after he returned to the Zulu but, some years later, Dingiswayo was ambushed by Zwide's amaNdwandwe and killed. The settling of Mzilikazi's people, the AmaNdebele or Matabele, in the south of Zimbabwe with the concomitant driving of the AmaShona into the north caused a tribal conflict that still resonates today. Shaka Zulu is a truly unique events space, which quickly established itself as one of the capitals top party venues. Upon reaching manhood he deserted the Elangeni and became affiliated with the Mthethwa clan. [42] Rubinstein also notes: One element in Shaka's destruction was to create a vast artificial desert around his domain... 'to make the destruction complete, organized bands of Zulu murderers regularly patrolled the waste, hunting for any stray men and running them down like wild pig'... An area 200 miles to the north of the center of the state, 300 miles to the west, and 500 miles to the south was ravaged and depopulated...[42]. Shaka Zulu is a 1986 South African television series directed by William C. Faure and written by Joshua Sinclair for the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC), based on … Shaka claimed his father’s chieftaincy with military assistance from Dingiswayo. Book chapter. He ruled at one of first recorded towns known as Bulawayo Anger over her death and over her (and his) treatment at the hands of the Elangeni led him to order the massacre of thousands of tribal members. He has been called a military genius for his reforms and innovations, but was condemned for the brutality of his reign. Soga and Bryant related each of them to a larger grouping they called Mho. You decide? Ed. [10] In this way a greater sense of cohesion was created, though it never became complete, as subsequent civil wars attest. It was released on July 20th, 2015. In contrast to recent literary analyses At least 7,000 people who were deemed to be insufficiently grief-stricken were executed, although the killing was not restricted to humans: cows were slaughtered so that their calves would know what losing a mother felt like. The founders of the states which Omer-Cooper called "Zulu-type states," including the Ndebele, the Gasa, the Ngoni, and the Swazi had all been closely associated with Zwide. Men under age … His life is the subject of numerous colourful and exaggerated stories, many of which are debated by historians. Shaka organised various grades into regiments, and quartered them in special military kraals, with regiments having their own distinctive names and insignia. Who pursued the sun and the moon. [16], The figure of Shaka still sparks interest among not only the contemporary Zulu but many worldwide who have encountered the tribe and its history. "[26], Scholarship in recent years has revised views of the sources on Shaka's reign. Shaka Zulu is one of the most famous (or notorious) leaders to have graced Southern Africa in the past few centuries. In 1820 Shaka takes control of the entire Zulu Kingdom and begins his conquest. [28], Their accounts may be balanced by the rich resource of oral histories collected around 1900 by the same James Stuart, now published in six volumes as The James Stuart Archive. The Zulu Empire begins to collapse. Shaka sought revenge and received it in 1820 with the Zulu’s victory over the Ndwandwe in the Battle of Mhlatuze River. De oorlog staat bekend om zijn bloedige veldslagen, waarbij de Britten opereerden met een modern leger met vuurwapens en bajonetten, … He fled Shaka's employ, and in turn conquered an empire in Zimbabwe, after clashing with European groups like the Boers. Zwide's general Soshangane (of the Shangaan) moved north towards what is now Mozambique to inflict further damage on less resistant foes and take advantage of slaving opportunities, obliging Portuguese traders to give tribute.
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