FSM can be used to express the behavior of a sequential circuit ; Counters are a special case ; The circuit is to change states only on the rising edge of the clock. 0000003392 00000 n 1588 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 1591 /H [ 1658 499 ] /L 422526 /E 108199 /N 8 /T 390646 >> endobj xref 1588 41 0000000016 00000 n Program for Decimal to Binary Conversion. Example: mod 6 counter 0 1 2 5 4 4 11 1 1 1 1 000 0 0 Elec 326 10 Sequential Circuit Design Number of possible state assignments: E&CE 223 Digital Circuits and Systems (Fall 2004 - A. Kennings) Page 13 Topologies of Clocked Sequential Circuits - Outputs Recall our basic block diagram of a clocked sequential circuit: The outputs can be a function of either: The current state only, or The current state andthe current inputs. Sequential Circuit Definitions, Types of Latches: SR, Clocked SR, and D Latches 2. 1) Analysis of sequential circuits 2) Design (synthesis) of sequential circuits . Section 7.4 Designing Sequential Circuits. All Rights Reserved. Sequential circuits: A sequential circuit is specified by a time sequence of inputs, outputs, and internal states. 5.27 Design a synchronous sequential circuit with two inputs, AA and BB, one output, ZZ, and a clock input, CLKCLK. © Copyright 2016. H�b```f``�b`c`�ad@ A�G#� �Ѱ�Q�� ek>y�Fu�z3 �f�Ƴ�Z��j����ą�ݪa���ݦ�`xT@���r���1y����W)��p(���$R�3��������o�sɮ���ႇ��G�B���v��tl Flip flop is also called latch. 0000044371 00000 n 0000007363 00000 n The article explains a clear scenario on the design and optimization of sequential circuits with maximum functionality and with the utilization of a minimum number of logic gates. The basic idea to create a scan design is to reconfigure each flip-flop (FF) or latch in the sequential circuit to become a scan flip-flop (SFF) or scan latch (often called scan cell), respectively. The sequential Circuits depend over the input value as well as the stored levels. The sequential Circuits are designed using the combinational circuits along with memory devices known as Flip-Flops. 0000075834 00000 n 0000005751 00000 n �5T_Ɔ��& b�L��R(�d�.J�˗�IR�U�o'��?D �H`��:�v���$J��˷^��E��۟�5��z�� ����l�!Z�P�c��2JUΑ��IJ��3oM��_}l+�^����ڰ_ԏ p��[ endstream endobj 1604 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type0 /BaseFont /LMLPHG+Wingdings-Regular /Encoding /Identity-H /DescendantFonts [ 1621 0 R ] >> endobj 1605 0 obj 419 endobj 1606 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 1605 0 R >> stream 8.13 The ‘one-hot’ state assignment. Choose the type of flip-flops to be used. 0000004619 00000 n Sequential Circuits Problems Algorithm = Logic + Control. H��S;O�0��+n���8��MAb@B��J��JZ��>�$��e�%������� �{�N'w��8��l�(��eM�L�S��mW��.z�� m55�����\�Wr�H�-Fm�Q�D�/G}�˂�U8r�[Ij���?Cci�1�.����]��BQ5��`��깆e���o��S=���2���1�g�j���x��b��9�cS�N�P FPGA Circuits State table of a sequential circuit. Obtain the specification of the desired circuit. Electronics and Communication Engineering, Basic Electronics Engineering - Digital Electronics, Memory Stack & Subroutines - MCQs with answers. Chapter 3 - Part 1 2 Unit 4: Sequential Circuits Chapters 6 & 7: Sequential Circuits 1. The steps are: 2. B. HOLDSWORTH BSc (Eng), MSc, FIEE, R.C. Not practical for use in synchronous sequential circuits! Flip-Flop Timing Parameters: Setup, hold, propagation, clocking 4. Advantages & Disadvantages of Microprocessors & Micro-contr... 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Shann 6-6 Synchronous Sequential Circuits Clocked seq ckts: most commonly used sync seq ckts — is syn seq ckts that use clock pulses in the inputs of storage elements — has a master-clock generator to generate a periodic train of clock pulses ¾The clock pulses are distributed throughout the system. The design of a synchronous sequential circuit starts from a set of specifications and culminates in a logic diagram or a list of Boolean functions from which a logic diagram can be obtained. [��+�7y�f���z/UZ�(�P�q�s+��K�^ֆ�3�î]�N�%�/��;�ePO7{7�.�5¬���J�� ��0O1�l~ʏ��� #�R?�lUl�v�����_S�����*�U���Vὀa&��e(n��=9J��Q�q�;6�4��ƙ7��bze1]Y�,�����g����(�C�D�8�s8z���GX�=������g�d�u��������yYu.k(Q��UG���-� $=�� endstream endobj 1602 0 obj 390 endobj 1603 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 1602 0 R >> stream Let’s go with a comprehensive approach to the functionality and performance of a sequential circuit. �}����(AJ�$��&����=;�r�J�D�v�A� 4. Sequential Circuit Design Steps The design of sequential circuit starts with verbal specifications of the problem (See Figure 1). Sequential Circuit Design: Practice. 0000007904 00000 n 0000078513 00000 n The output of a sequential circuit depends not only the combination of present inputs but also on the previous outputs. 0000006822 00000 n Reduce the number of states if possible. 0000004338 00000 n H�t�=o�0�w����4?DJ��!C������t�����k�� "����w' � Design steps: 1. Block diagram Flip Flop. … Elec 326 9 Sequential Circuit Design State Assignment Any assignment of ⎡log2n⎤state variables will work, but different ones can give radically different circuits. ����Z0�ZCn�/�2�˸j���������n�)�r�/��ߚy�)2C9�6n�u���rF��2�5)HQi��A]�U�>FK))�V$�� J �kb���}�@M��ch�IPX�0)�԰�! d�]!Sy;�����!k����@ r�h�� r�`TPI5,���Ј�� �� ÿ@B��9t�Vb�Y��{��v1\d��x�a!����@|��Hރ`&` 3� �3@|���K�ag��9�3\ �߄Nf��x�������r���@�B�I)3�f�`8�( e6}ַ߁& b- `0��20^m��0 ��~� endstream endobj 1628 0 obj 373 endobj 1591 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 1587 0 R /Resources << /ColorSpace << /CS2 1599 0 R /CS3 1598 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS2 1617 0 R /GS3 1619 0 R >> /Font << /TT3 1596 0 R /TT4 1592 0 R /TT5 1597 0 R /C2_1 1604 0 R >> /XObject << /Im1 1626 0 R >> /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageC ] >> /Contents [ 1601 0 R 1603 0 R 1606 0 R 1608 0 R 1610 0 R 1612 0 R 1614 0 R 1616 0 R ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Rotate 0 /StructParents 0 >> endobj 1592 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 148 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 333 0 0 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 0 278 278 0 0 0 0 0 722 667 667 722 611 556 0 722 333 389 722 611 0 722 722 0 0 667 556 611 0 0 944 722 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 0 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 333 444 444 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /LMLNFO+TimesNewRoman /FontDescriptor 1594 0 R >> endobj 1593 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 905 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -211 /Flags 32 /FontBBox [ -665 -325 2000 1006 ] /FontName /LMLNIK+Arial /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 0 /FontFile2 1625 0 R >> endobj 1594 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 656 /Descent -216 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -568 -307 2000 1007 ] /FontName /LMLNFO+TimesNewRoman /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 94 /XHeight 0 /FontFile2 1618 0 R >> endobj 1595 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 656 /Descent -216 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -558 -307 2000 1026 ] /FontName /LMLNHO+TimesNewRoman,Bold /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 160 /XHeight 0 /FontFile2 1620 0 R >> endobj 1596 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 122 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 0 0 0 333 0 0 570 0 0 0 722 0 722 722 667 611 778 0 389 0 0 0 0 722 778 611 0 722 556 667 0 0 0 722 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 556 444 0 444 333 500 556 278 333 0 278 833 556 500 556 556 444 389 333 556 500 0 500 500 444 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /LMLNHO+TimesNewRoman,Bold /FontDescriptor 1595 0 R >> endobj 1597 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 32 /Widths [ 278 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /LMLNIK+Arial /FontDescriptor 1593 0 R >> endobj 1598 0 obj /DeviceGray endobj 1599 0 obj [ /ICCBased 1623 0 R ] endobj 1600 0 obj 408 endobj 1601 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 1600 0 R >> stream 0000006275 00000 n Sequential Logic Circuits - MCQs with answers Q1. H����N�@���w���J�tQ���� N�i((V�^h��q$s�9����㱳f@`2��B�K��� v ��`�QЀ�g�D��Pa�d�ީ"�1�9���ڠ�D��(�"�₌�ξRr4��Ȋ�o>ߥ��A���L�N! Recall from previous lesson that sequential circuit design … Derive the corresponding state table. a. Synchronous b. Asynchronous c. Both d. None of the above View Answer / Hide Answer. Consequently the output is solely a function of the current inputs. 0000007386 00000 n 0000004596 00000 n Unlike combinational circuits, sequential circuits include memory elements with combinational circuits. • Later, we will study circuits having a stored internal state, i.e., sequential logic circuits. We will now consider a more general set of steps for designing sequential circuits. Step 1: Making a state table • The first we derive a state table based on the problem statement. (It may be easier to find a state diagram first, and then convert that to a table) Step 2: Assign binary codes to the states in the state table, if you haven’t already. 7 In normal combinational-circuit design associated with synchronous sequential circuits, hazards are of no concern, since momentary erroneous signals are not generally troublesome. 0000005774 00000 n 0000008387 00000 n Derive the logic expressions needed to implement the circuit. •Step 6: Figure out functions for input to flip flops 0000005109 00000 n The type of flip-flop to be use is J-K Two flip-flops are needed to represent the four states and are designated Q0Q1. H����N�0E���Y���$R�E$*!�0nZ�ZGĮ��'I�vK�"#�̝��� RTL Hardware Design by P. Chu Chapter 9 2 Outline 1. The number of states required by the machine is defined by the ASM chart. }>�%���c`Švd�ީo����ku�T��c��m���׏���S��v�X�-+�Wz��������V(���Q/7Ъ�ϕ���J�!9m;��4[ϠY�2��%���]=�#���A�u$p\��V�s� ������0��LzX1���Һnw��J(&z���N�a�e��а�c��|h�L@ρ� P�ZF�a2Ǫ��Ρ�S����;=�6���0$�.���������X0�m�\�T ��ڼ���j{X����M���OehD��0m���V���ۺ�>�_Nk��l���Y�ab8�v%�y�ȇtm=�(�EbM�WX�/�G ��l�0 .��r endstream endobj 1609 0 obj 459 endobj 1610 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 1609 0 R >> stream design combinational logic circuits • Combinational logic circuits do not have an internal stored state, i.e., they have no memory. Sequential logic circuits are those, whose output depends not only on the present value of the input but also on previous values of the input signal (history of values) which is in contrast to combinational circuits where output depends only on the present values of the input, at any instant of time. However, if a momentary incorrect signal is fed back in an asynchronous sequential circuit, it may cause the circuit to go to the wrong stable state. Sequential Circuit Design (contd) K-maps to simplify JK input expressions 34 Sequential Circuit Design (contd) Final circuit for the general counter example 35 General Design Process. 0000078729 00000 n Sequential circuit design procedure Step 1: Make a state table based on the problem statement. 0000003624 00000 n Flip-Flops: Characteristic and Excitation Tables 5. 0000003862 00000 n Flip flop is one bit storage bistable device. Derive a state diagram. The table should show the present states, inputs, next states and outputs. 0000001658 00000 n Sequential circuits described by ASM charts may be implemented using a ‘one-hot’ state assignment with the intention of reducing design time. Sequential circuit uses a memory element like flip – flops as feedb… Races can be avoided by directing the circuit through a unique sequence of intermediate unstable states. #�� �#ʺ�/ p|��hӢN`�X}���;���Cao��0�'T�'�;Ս�Gm�I30�Ek���q3��. 0000001175 00000 n This example is taken from P. K. Lala, Practical Digital Logic Design and Testing, Prentice Hall, 1996, p.176. 0000007881 00000 n 0000005604 00000 n Controller Design: Finite state machine, state table, design of combinational logic of sequential circuit, reverse of sequential design. The most difficult task in designing sequential circuits occurs at the very start of the design; in determining what characteristics of a given problem require sequential operations, and more particularly, what behaviors must be represented by a unique state.
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