During this time period, Messel was undergoing intense volcanic activity which resulted in the formation of freshwater maar lakes. Lower jaw projecting; mouth large, oblique to nearly vertical. Tholichthys larval stage with the head region covered with bony plates. Family Cheimarrhichthyidae is a monotypic family consisting of Cheimarrichthys fosteri which is found in fast-flowing rivers thoughout coastal New Zealand. Günther (1868, based on several shorter papers) described and illustrated a large part of the Central American cichlid fauna, followed by Regan (1906-1908). ), Lates (9 spp.) Suggested new common name for this family in a coming ref. All have been assigned to Datnioides, now the genus type for the family. Opercular bone very much splintered or fimbriated. Caesionidae - (Fusiliers) A cordlike ligament stretches from ceratohyal to dentary symphasis. Most species occur as heterosexual pairs. Another early major treatise is by Jardine (1843), based on the Schomburgk collection from Guyana, Brazil and Venezuela (Kullander & Stawikowski, 1997a-b, for identifications). Adults with pelvic fins. Anterior dorsal fin with 3-9 spines; the second having 1 spine and usually 18-37 soft rays. The insertion of the hyomandibula relatively far posterior, well separated from the posterior margin of the orbit. 5. 101194). and Psammoperca (1 sp.) Mostly bottom dwelling species feeding on a mixed diet of algae and benthic invertebrates; some are planktivores, and some are specialized to feed on skin or fins of larger fishes, with mimic as cleaner. Oviparous. The species may reach an elevation of 700 meters and penetrate 300 kilometers inland from the coast. Most occurring in shallow coastal marine waters, in rocky intertidal areas, coral reefs, mangroves, oyster beds and in the lower reaches of most rivers (Ref. Freshwater species = ISCAAP 13; marine species = ISCAAP 39. Dorsal fin with 43-49 branched and unbranched rays and anal fin with 31-36 rays, these counts including 1-6 weak, flexible spines at front of dorsal fin and 1 or 2 in anal fin. No spines on anal fin. Distribution: from India to Borneo in fresh and brackish waters. Snout not very elongated. Inhabits subtropical and temperate nearshore waters; often solitary, demersal over reef substrates (Ref. Practically all genera and more than half of the species have been kept in aquaria at some time. Scaleless. Cornea folding in at junction of skin and cornea. Pelvic fins present in all but 2 species, before pectorals, with 1 short, inconspicuous spine and 2-4 segmented rays. Most species occur as heterosexual pairs. Slender fishes with compressed head and body. 119093). Pelvic axis usually with scaly process. Only one species occurs in true marine waters Tilapia guineensis (Günther, 1862). Body scales cycloid. Pectoral fin rays 12-15. are placed in a new family, Latidae (= former Centropomidae: Latinae) (Ref. 7463). Distribution: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. Cephalic mechanosensory canals not opening to the outside. 7463). Worldwide. Palatines toothless. 94100). 119093). originates on the subocular shelf; supraneural configuration 0/0/0+2/1+1/, /0+0/0+2/1+1/, or /0+0/2/1+1/; epineurals 10-15; procurrent caudal-fin rays typically 7-10; hypurals 1-2 and 3-4 typically fused in all species (except some juveniles); openings in external wall of pars jugularis 2 to 5; colour of sides with or without longitudinal stripes, the caudal fin either without markings, with a blackish blotch on tips of lobes, or with a longitudinal blackish streak in middle of each lobe (Ref. Airbreathing through suprabranchial organ. Cichlids are recognized by several unambiguous anatomical synapomorphies. Cichlid diversity has been explained both by their advanced brood care and by the versatile design of the pharyngeal jaw complex used for food mastication. They have a long, stout body; big mouth with small, sharp teeth; long dorsal and rounded tail fin. CLOFFSCA: Cichla species are known locally as pavón (Venezuela, Colombia) or tucunaré (Brazil, Peru), the latter name expressed as lukanani (Guyana), toekoenali (Surinam), toukounaré (French Guiana) or similar names in the Guianas. They do generally well in aquariums. The mouth is small and non protractile, the snout overhangs the lower jaw. Distribution: from India to Borneo in fresh and brackish waters. Live specimens with exceedingly beautiful colors. Centrogenyidae - (False scorpionfishes) Distinct sagittal crest; pleural ribs present. Crenicichla species are known as jacundá in Brazil, añashúa in Peru, angoumot (French Guiana), mataguaro (Colombia, Venezuela), datra fisi (Surinam), cabeza amarga (Argentina and Uruguay). Branchiostegal 7 rays. 4. Cephalic mechanosensory canals not opening to the outside. Aplodactylidae - (Marblefishes) On the Pacific slope, cichlids are found in a succession of permanent rivers south to the Río Jequetepeque or perhaps even to slightly south of Lima, Peru. Branchiostegal rays 6. Anterior dorsal fin with 4 or 5 spines; the second dorsal fin with 1 short spine and about 18 or 19 soft rays. Eastern Atlantic (including the Mediterranean), Indian and Pacific Oceans.
2020 freshwater fish with long dorsal fin